From Low-Distortion Norm Embeddings to Explicit Uncertainty Relations and Efficient Information Locking
- Working Paper
The existence of quantum uncertainty relations is the essential reason that some classically impossible cryptographic primitives become possible when quantum communication is allowed. One direct operational manifestation of these uncertainty relations is a purely quantum effect referred to as information locking. A locking scheme can be viewed as a cryptographic protocol in which a uniformly random n-bit message is encoded in a quantum system using a classical key of size much smaller than n. Without the key, no measurement of this quantum state can extract more than a negligible amount of information about the message, in which case the message is said to be "locked". Furthermore, knowing the key, it is possible to recover, that is "unlock", the message. In this paper, we make the following contributions by exploiting a connection between uncertainty relations and low-distortion embeddings of L2 into L1. We introduce the notion of metric uncertainty relations and connect it to low-distortion embeddings of L2 into L1. A metric uncertainty relation also implies an entropic uncertainty relation. We prove that random bases satisfy uncertainty relations with a stronger definition and better parameters than previously known. Our proof is also considerably simpler than earlier proofs. We apply this result to show the existence of locking schemes with key size independent of the message length. We give efficient constructions of metric uncertainty relations. The bases defining these metric uncertainty relations are computable by quantum circuits of almost linear size. This leads to the first explicit construction of a strong information locking scheme. Moreover, we present a locking scheme that is close to being implementable with current technology. We apply our metric uncertainty relations to exhibit communication protocols that perform quantum equality testing Show more
Journal / seriesarXiv
NotesSubmitted 14 October 2010, Last revised 6 December 2013. See also http://e-citations.ethbib.ethz.ch/view/pub:124411.
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