Insights into PBDE Uptake, Body Burden, and Elimination Gained from Australian Age–Concentration Trends Observed Shortly after Peak Exposure
Müller, Jochen F.
Harden, Fiona A.
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseIn Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Permitted
Ba c k g r o u n d: Population pharmacokinetic models combined with multiple sets of age–concentration biomonitoring data facilitate back-calculation of chemical uptake rates from biomonitoring data. O b j e c t i v e: We back-calculated uptake rates of PBDEs for the Australian population from multiple biomonitoring surveys (top-down) and compared them with uptake rates calculated from dietary intake estimates of PBDEs and PBDE concentrations in dust (bottom-up). M e t h o d s: Using three sets of PBDE elimination half-lives, we applied a population pharmaco-kinetic model to the PBDE biomonitoring data measured between 2002–2003 and 2010–2011 to derive the top-down uptake rates of four key PBDE congeners and six age groups. For the bottom-up approach, we used PBDE concentrations measured around 2005. R e s u l t s: Top-down uptake rates of ∑4BDE (the sum of BDEs47, 99, 100, and 153) varied from 7.9 to 19ng/kg/day for toddlers and from 1.2 to 3.0ng/kg/day for adults; in most cases, they were—for all age groups—higher than the bottom-up uptake rates. The discrepancy was largest for toddlers with factors up to 7–15 depending on the congener. Despite different elimination half-lives of the four congeners, the age–concentration trends showed no increase in concentration with age and were similar for all congeners. C o n c l u s i o n s: In the bottom-up approach, PBDE uptake is underestimated; currently known pathways are not sufficient to explain measured PBDE concentrations, especially in young children. Although PBDE exposure of toddlers has declined in the past years, pre- and postnatal exposure to PBDEs has remained almost constant because the mothers’ PBDE body burden has not yet decreased substantially. Show more
Journal / seriesEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Pages / Article No.
PublisherNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Organisational unit03402 - Hungerbühler, Konrad (emeritus)
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