Pruessmann, Klaas P.
Malik, Shaihan J.
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
In parallel RF pulse design, peak RF magnitudes and specific absorption rate levels are critical concerns in the hardware and safety limits. The variable rate selective excitation (VERSE) method is an efficient technique to limit the peak RF power by applying a local-only RF and gradient waveform reshaping while retaining the on-resonance profile. The accuracy of the excitation performed by the VERSEd RF and gradient waveforms strictly depends on the performance of the employed hardware. Any deviation from the nominal gradient fields as a result of frequency dependent system imperfections violates the VERSE condition similarly to off-resonance effects, leading to significant excitation errors and the RF pulse not converging to the targeted peak RF power. Moreover, for iterative VERSE-guided RF pulse design (i.e. reVERSE), the k-space trajectory actually changes at every iteration, which is assumed to be constant. In this work, we show both theoretically and experimentally the effect of gradient system imperfections on iteratively VERSEd parallel RF excitations. In order to improve the excitation accuracy besides limiting the RF power below certain thresholds, we propose to integrate gradient field monitoring or gradient impulse response function (GIRF) estimations of the actual gradient fields into the RF pulse design problem. A third-order dynamic field camera comprising a set of NMR field sensors and GIRFs was used to measure or estimate the actual gradient waveforms that are involved in the VERSE algorithm respectively. The deviating and variable k-space is counteracted at each iteration of the VERSE-guided iterative RF pulse design. The proposed approaches are demonstrated for accelerated multiple-channel spatially selective RF pulses, and highly improved experimental performance was achieved at both 3 T and 7 T Show more
Journal / seriesNMR in Biomedicine
SubjectExcitation accuracy; Field monitoring; Gradient impulse response; Parallel transmit; RF power; VERSE
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