MyD88-dependent pro-interleukin-1 beta induction in dendritic cells exposed to food-grade synthetic amorphous silica
Winkler, Hans C.
Von Moos, Lea M.
Schraner, Elisabeth M.
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized first-line sensors of foreign materials invading the organism. These sentinel cells rely on pattern recognition receptors such as Nod-like or Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to launch immune reactions against pathogens, but also to mediate tolerance to self-antigens and, in the intestinal milieu, to nutrients and commensals. Since inappropriate DC activation contributes to inflammatory diseases and immunopathologies, a key question in the evaluation of orally ingested nanomaterials is whether their contact with DCs in the intestinal mucosa disrupts this delicate homeostatic balance between pathogen defense and tolerance. Here, we generated steady-state DCs by incubating hematopoietic progenitors with feline McDonough sarcoma-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) and used the resulting immature DCs to test potential biological responses against food-grade synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) representing a common nanomaterial generally thought to be safe. Results Interaction of immature and unprimed DCs with food-grade SAS particles and their internalization by endocytic uptake fails to elicit cytotoxicity and the release of interleukin (IL)-1α or tumor necrosis factor-α, which were identified as master regulators of acute inflammation in lung-related studies. However, the display of maturation markers on the cell surface shows that SAS particles activate completely immature DCs. Also, the endocytic uptake of SAS particles into these steady-state DCs leads to induction of the pro-IL-1β precursor, subsequently cleaved by the inflammasome to secrete mature IL-1β. In contrast, neither pro-IL-1β induction nor mature IL-1β secretion occurs upon internalization of TiO2 or FePO4 nanoparticles. The pro-IL-1β induction is suppressed by pharmacologic inhibitors of endosomal TLR activation or by genetic ablation of MyD88, a downstream adapter of TLR pathways, indicating that endosomal pattern recognition is responsible for the observed cytokine response to food-grade SAS particles. Conclusions Our results unexpectedly show that food-grade SAS particles are able to directly initiate the endosomal MyD88-dependent pathogen pattern recognition and signaling pathway in steady-state DCs. The ensuing activation of immature DCs with de novo induction of pro-IL-1β implies that the currently massive use of SAS particles as food additive should be reconsidered Show more
Journal / seriesParticle and fibre toxicology
SubjectE 551; Food additive; Food toxicology; Gut-associated lymphoid tissue; Inflammatory bowel disease; Nanomaterial; Silicon dioxide; Synthetic amorphous silica
Organisational unit03957 - Zimmermann, Michael
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