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dc.contributor.author
Berk Mirza, M.
dc.contributor.author
Adams, Rick A.
dc.contributor.author
Mathys, Christoph
dc.contributor.author
Friston, Karl J.
dc.date.accessioned
2018-01-16T11:49:07Z
dc.date.available
2018-01-13T04:01:31Z
dc.date.available
2018-01-16T11:49:07Z
dc.date.issued
2018
dc.identifier.issn
1932-6203
dc.identifier.other
10.1371/journal.pone.0190429
en_US
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/228335
dc.identifier.doi
10.3929/ethz-b-000228335
dc.description.abstract
In previous papers, we introduced a normative scheme for scene construction and epistemic (visual) searches based upon active inference. This scheme provides a principled account of how people decide where to look, when categorising a visual scene based on its contents. In this paper, we use active inference to explain the visual searches of normal human subjects; enabling us to answer some key questions about visual foraging and salience attribution. First, we asked whether there is any evidence for ‘epistemic foraging’; i.e. exploration that resolves uncertainty about a scene. In brief, we used Bayesian model comparison to compare Markov decision process (MDP) models of scan-paths that did–and did not–contain the epistemic, uncertainty-resolving imperatives for action selection. In the course of this model comparison, we discovered that it was necessary to include non-epistemic (heuristic) policies to explain observed behaviour (e.g., a reading-like strategy that involved scanning from left to right). Despite this use of heuristic policies, model comparison showed that there is substantial evidence for epistemic foraging in the visual exploration of even simple scenes. Second, we compared MDP models that did–and did not–allow for changes in prior expectations over successive blocks of the visual search paradigm. We found that implicit prior beliefs about the speed and accuracy of visual searches changed systematically with experience. Finally, we characterised intersubject variability in terms of subject-specific prior beliefs. Specifically, we used canonical correlation analysis to see if there were any mixtures of prior expectations that could predict between-subject differences in performance; thereby establishing a quantitative link between different behavioural phenotypes and Bayesian belief updating. We demonstrated that better scene categorisation performance is consistently associated with lower reliance on heuristics; i.e., a greater use of a generative model of the scene to direct its exploration.
en_US
dc.language.iso
en
en_US
dc.publisher
Public Library of Science
en_US
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title
Human visual exploration reduces uncertainty about the sensed world
en_US
dc.type
Journal Article
dc.rights.license
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
dc.date.published
2018-01-05
ethz.journal.title
PLoS ONE
ethz.journal.volume
13
en_US
ethz.journal.issue
1
en_US
ethz.journal.abbreviated
PLoS ONE
ethz.pages.start
e0190429
en_US
ethz.size
20 p.
en_US
ethz.version.deposit
publishedVersion
en_US
ethz.identifier.wos
ethz.identifier.scopus
ethz.publication.place
San Francicsco, CA
en_US
ethz.publication.status
published
en_US
ethz.leitzahl
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02140 - Dep. Inf.technologie und Elektrotechnik / Dep. of Inform.Technol. Electrical Eng.::02631 - Institut für Biomedizinische Technik / Institute for Biomedical Engineering::03955 - Stephan, Klaas E. / Stephan, Klaas E.
ethz.leitzahl.certified
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02140 - Dep. Inf.technologie und Elektrotechnik / Dep. of Inform.Technol. Electrical Eng.::02631 - Institut für Biomedizinische Technik / Institute for Biomedical Engineering::03955 - Stephan, Klaas E. / Stephan, Klaas E.
ethz.date.deposited
2018-01-13T04:01:42Z
ethz.source
SCOPUS
ethz.eth
yes
en_US
ethz.availability
Open access
en_US
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2018-01-16T11:49:12Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2019-02-02T14:06:14Z
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
ethz.COinS
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