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dc.contributor.author
Shepon, Alon
dc.contributor.author
Eshel, Gidon
dc.contributor.author
Noor, Elad
dc.contributor.author
Milo, Ron
dc.date.accessioned
2018-04-25T08:40:59Z
dc.date.available
2018-04-25T02:08:57Z
dc.date.available
2018-04-25T08:40:59Z
dc.date.issued
2018-04-10
dc.identifier.other
10.1073/pnas.1713820115
en_US
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/260390
dc.identifier.doi
10.3929/ethz-b-000260390
dc.description.abstract
Food loss is widely recognized as undermining food security and environmental sustainability. However, consumption of resource-intensive food items instead of more efficient, equally nutritious alternatives can also be considered as an effective food loss. Here we define and quantify these opportunity food losses as the food loss associated with consuming resource-intensive animal-based items instead of plant-based alternatives which are nutritionally comparable, e.g., in terms of protein content. We consider replacements that minimize cropland use for each of the main US animal-based food categories. We find that although the characteristic conventional retail-to-consumer food losses are ≈30% for plant and animal products, the opportunity food losses of beef, pork, dairy, poultry, and eggs are 96%, 90%, 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. This arises because plant-based replacement diets can produce 20-fold and twofold more nutritionally similar food per cropland than beef and eggs, the most and least resource-intensive animal categories, respectively. Although conventional and opportunity food losses are both targets for improvement, the high opportunity food losses highlight the large potential savings beyond conventionally defined food losses. Concurrently replacing all animal-based items in the US diet with plant-based alternatives will add enough food to feed, in full, 350 million additional people, well above the expected benefits of eliminating all supply chain food waste. These results highlight the importance of dietary shifts to improving food availability and security.
en_US
dc.format
application/pdf
en_US
dc.language.iso
en
en_US
dc.publisher
National Academy of Sciences
en_US
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subject
livestock
en_US
dc.subject
food systems
en_US
dc.subject
animal-based diet
en_US
dc.subject
plant-based diet
en_US
dc.subject
opportunity food loss
en_US
dc.title
The opportunity cost of animal based diets exceeds all food losses
en_US
dc.type
Journal Article
dc.rights.license
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
dc.date.published
2018-03-26
ethz.journal.title
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America: PNAS
ethz.journal.volume
115
en_US
ethz.journal.issue
15
en_US
ethz.pages.start
3804
en_US
ethz.pages.end
3809
en_US
ethz.version.deposit
publishedVersion
en_US
ethz.identifier.wos
ethz.publication.place
Washington, DC
en_US
ethz.publication.status
published
en_US
ethz.date.deposited
2018-04-25T02:09:17Z
ethz.source
WOS
ethz.eth
yes
en_US
ethz.availability
Open access
en_US
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2018-04-25T08:41:03Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2018-08-03T06:44:40Z
ethz.rosetta.exportRequired
true
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
ethz.COinS
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