- Review Article
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein, lipid, phospholipid, steroid and oligosaccharide synthesis and modification, calcium ion storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous products. Its volume (and activity) must be maintained under normal growth conditions, must be expanded in a controlled manner on activation of ER stress programs and must be reduced to pre-stress size during the recovery phase that follows ER stress termination. ER-phagy is the constitutive or regulated fragmentation and delivery of ER fragments to lysosomal compartments for clearance. It gives essential contribution to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, proteostasis, lipidostasis and oligosaccharidostasis (i.e. the capacity to produce the proteome, lipidome and oligosaccharidome in appropriate quality and quantity). ER turnover is activated on ER stress, nutrient deprivation, accumulation of misfolded polypeptides, pathogen attack and by activators of macroautophagy. The selectivity of these poorly characterized catabolic pathways is ensured by proteins displayed at the limiting membrane of the ER subdomain to be removed from cells. These proteins are defined as ER-phagy receptors and engage the cytosolic macroautophagy machinery via specific modules that associate with ubiquitin-like, cytosolic proteins of the Atg8/LC3/GABARAP family. In this review, we give an overview on selective ER turnover and on the yeast and mammalian ER-phagy receptors identified so far. Show more
Journal / seriesBiochemical Society transactions
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