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dc.contributor.author
Gilbert, Adrien
dc.contributor.author
Leinss, Silvan
dc.contributor.author
Kargel, Jeffrey
dc.contributor.author
Kääb, Andreas
dc.contributor.author
Gascoin, Simon
dc.contributor.author
Leonard, Gregory
dc.contributor.author
Berthier, Etienne
dc.contributor.author
Karki, Alina
dc.contributor.author
Yao, Tandong
dc.date.accessioned
2018-09-20T07:25:34Z
dc.date.available
2018-09-19T16:02:05Z
dc.date.available
2018-09-20T07:25:34Z
dc.date.issued
2018
dc.identifier.issn
1994-0416
dc.identifier.issn
1994-0424
dc.identifier.other
10.5194/tc-12-2883-2018
en_US
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/290567
dc.identifier.doi
10.3929/ethz-b-000290567
dc.description.abstract
In north-western Tibet (34.0°N, 82.2°E) near lake Aru Co, the entire ablation areas of two glaciers (Aru-1 and Aru-2) suddenly collapsed on 17 July and 21 September 2016. The masses transformed into ice avalanches with volumes of 68 and 83×106m3 and ran out up to 7km in horizontal distance, killing nine people. The only similar event currently documented is the 130×106m3 Kolka Glacier rock and ice avalanche of 2002 (Caucasus Mountains). Using climatic reanalysis, remote sensing, and three-dimensional thermo-mechanical modelling, we reconstructed the Aru glaciers' thermal regimes, thicknesses, velocities, basal shear stresses, and ice damage prior to the collapse in detail. Thereby, we highlight the potential of using emergence velocities to constrain basal friction in mountain glacier models. We show that the frictional change leading to the Aru collapses occurred in the temperate areas of the polythermal glaciers and is not related to a rapid thawing of cold-based ice. The two glaciers experienced a similar stress transfer from predominant basal drag towards predominant lateral shearing in the detachment areas and during the 5–6 years before the collapses. A high-friction patch is found under the Aru-2 glacier tongue, but not under the Aru-1 glacier. This difference led to disparate behaviour of both glaciers, making the development of the instability more visible for the Aru-1 glacier through enhanced crevassing and terminus advance over a longer period. In comparison, these signs were observable only over a few days to weeks (crevasses) or were absent (advance) for the Aru-2 glacier. Field investigations reveal that those two glaciers were underlain by soft, highly erodible, and fine-grained sedimentary lithologies. We propose that the specific bedrock lithology played a key role in the two Tibet and the Caucasus Mountains giant glacier collapses documented to date by producing low bed roughness and large amounts of till, rich in clay and silt with a low friction angle. The twin 2016 Aru collapses would thus have been driven by a failing basal substrate linked to increasing pore water pressure in the subglacial drainage system in response to increases in surface melting and rain during the 5–6 years preceding the collapse dates.
en_US
dc.format
application/pdf
en_US
dc.language.iso
en
en_US
dc.publisher
Copernicus
en_US
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title
Mechanisms leading to the 2016 giant twin glacier collapses, Aru Range, Tibet
en_US
dc.type
Journal Article
dc.rights.license
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
dc.date.published
2018-09-07
ethz.journal.title
The Cryosphere
ethz.journal.volume
12
en_US
ethz.journal.issue
9
en_US
ethz.pages.start
2883
en_US
ethz.pages.end
2900
en_US
ethz.version.deposit
publishedVersion
en_US
ethz.identifier.wos
ethz.identifier.scopus
ethz.publication.place
Gottingen
en_US
ethz.publication.status
published
en_US
ethz.leitzahl
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02115 - Dep. Bau, Umwelt und Geomatik / Dep. of Civil, Env. and Geomatic Eng.::02608 - Institut für Umweltingenieurwiss. / Institute of Environmental Engineering::03849 - Hajnsek, Irena / Hajnsek, Irena
ethz.leitzahl.certified
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02115 - Dep. Bau, Umwelt und Geomatik / Dep. of Civil, Env. and Geomatic Eng.::02608 - Institut für Umweltingenieurwiss. / Institute of Environmental Engineering::03849 - Hajnsek, Irena / Hajnsek, Irena
ethz.date.deposited
2018-09-19T16:02:26Z
ethz.source
WOS
ethz.eth
yes
en_US
ethz.availability
Open access
en_US
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2018-09-20T07:26:02Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2020-02-15T15:06:11Z
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
ethz.COinS
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