Automated detection of individual clove trees for yield quantification in northeastern Madagascar based on multi-spectral satellite data
Roth, Sandra I.B.
Schaepman, Michael E.
Joerg, Philip C.
- Journal Article
There is an increasing demand for clove products, mainly dried buds and essential oil on global markets. Consequently, the importance of clove trees as a provisioning service is increasing at the local level, particularly for smallholders cultivating clove trees as cash crops. Due to limited availability of data on local production, using remote sensing-based methods to quantify today's clove production is of key interest. We estimated the clove bud yield in a study site in northeastern Madagascar by detecting individual clove trees and determining relevant production systems, including pasture and clove, clove plantation and agroforestry systems. We implemented an individual tree detection method based on two machine learning approaches. Specifically, we proposed using a circular Hough transform (CHT) for the automated detection of individual clove trees. Subsequently, we implemented a tree species classification method using a random forests (RF) classifier based on a set of features extracted for relevant trees in the above production systems. Finally, we classified and mapped different production systems. Based on the number of detected clove trees growing in a clove production system, we estimated the production system-dependent clove bud yield. Our results show that 97.9% of all reference clove trees were detected using a CHT. Classifying clove and non-clove trees resulted in a producer accuracy of 70.7% and a user accuracy of 59.2% for clove trees. The classification of the clove production systems resulted in an overall accuracy of 77.9%. By averaging different clove tree yield estimates obtained from the literature, we estimated an average total yield of approximately 575 tons/year for our 25,600 ha study area. With this approach, we demonstrate a first step towards large-scale clove bud yield estimation using remote sensing data and methodologies. Show more
Journal / seriesRemote Sensing of Environment
Pages / Article No.
SubjectCircular Hough transform; Single tree detection; Tree species classification; Clove bud yield estimation; LULC classification; Random forest; Very high-resolution satellite image; Pléiades satellite
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