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dc.contributor.author
Fry, Steven N.
dc.contributor.author
Simon, Rosalyn
dc.contributor.author
Dickinson, Michael H.
dc.date.accessioned
2020-10-01T07:26:42Z
dc.date.available
2017-06-09T10:08:20Z
dc.date.available
2020-10-01T07:26:42Z
dc.date.issued
2005-06
dc.identifier.issn
0022-0949
dc.identifier.issn
1477-9145
dc.identifier.other
10.1242/jeb.01612
en_US
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/32261
dc.description.abstract
Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then `replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight costs. © The Company of Biologists Limited 2005.
en_US
dc.language.iso
en
en_US
dc.publisher
Company of Biologists
en_US
dc.subject
Fruit fly
en_US
dc.subject
Drosophila melanogaster
en_US
dc.subject
Flight
en_US
dc.subject
Aerodynamics
en_US
dc.subject
Power
en_US
dc.subject
Biomechanics
en_US
dc.subject
Behavior
en_US
dc.title
The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila
en_US
dc.type
Journal Article
dc.date.published
2015-06-06
ethz.journal.title
The journal of experimental biology
ethz.journal.volume
208
en_US
ethz.journal.issue
12
en_US
ethz.journal.abbreviated
J. exp. biol.
ethz.pages.start
2303
en_US
ethz.pages.end
2318
en_US
ethz.identifier.wos
ethz.identifier.nebis
000049324
ethz.publication.place
Cambridge
en_US
ethz.publication.status
published
en_US
ethz.leitzahl
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich, direkt::00012 - Lehre und Forschung, direkt::00007 - Departemente, direkt::02140 - Departement Informationstechnologie und Elektrotechnik / Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering::02533 - Institut für Neuroinformatik (INI) / Institute of Neuroinformatics (INI)::03454 - Martin, Kevan A.C.
en_US
ethz.leitzahl.certified
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich, direkt::00012 - Lehre und Forschung, direkt::00007 - Departemente, direkt::02140 - Departement Informationstechnologie und Elektrotechnik / Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering::02533 - Institut für Neuroinformatik (INI) / Institute of Neuroinformatics (INI)::03454 - Martin, Kevan A.C.
ethz.date.deposited
2017-06-09T10:08:27Z
ethz.source
ECIT
ethz.identifier.importid
imp59364dd11f9fe86010
ethz.ecitpid
pub:52811
ethz.eth
yes
en_US
ethz.availability
Metadata only
en_US
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2017-07-20T16:25:48Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2021-02-15T17:42:12Z
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
ethz.COinS
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