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dc.contributor.author
Sharma, Brij M.
dc.contributor.author
Sanka, Ondrej
dc.contributor.author
Kalina, Jiří
dc.contributor.author
Scheringer, Martin
dc.date.accessioned
2019-02-27T17:11:45Z
dc.date.available
2019-02-10T11:23:05Z
dc.date.available
2019-02-27T17:11:45Z
dc.date.issued
2019-04
dc.identifier.issn
0160-4120
dc.identifier.issn
1873-6750
dc.identifier.other
10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.016
en_US
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/324073
dc.identifier.doi
10.3929/ethz-b-000324073
dc.description.abstract
Background Mercury is a pollutant of global concern. To protect human health and environment from mercury pollution, the Minamata Convention on mercury entered into force in 2017. Objectives To support a future effectiveness evaluation of the convention, this study assesses worldwide and regional time trends of total mercury levels in human blood and breast milk across different population sub-groups in the last half-century prior to entry-into-force of the Minamata Convention. This study also provides an overview of the epidemiological literature showing evidence of associations between mercury exposure (in terms of total mercury levels in whole blood, cord blood, and breast milk) and human health. Methods We searched electronic databases to identify articles published prior to June 14, 2017 and reported total mercury levels in any of three biological matrices (whole blood, cord blood, or breast milk) and/or associations with human health. Temporal trends of total mercury levels in the selected biological matrices across different population sub-groups were estimated using a linear fit of the log-transformed data. In parallel, statistical methods were employed to assess any possible effect of sources of inhomogeneity (i.e. study and population characteristics such as age, sex, ethnicity, source of exposure, sampling period, and geographical region) in the collected studies. Furthermore, a summary of significant and relevant associations between mercury exposure and human health conditions in children and adults was prepared. Findings We found significant declines in total mercury levels in whole blood, cord blood, and breast milk between 1966 and 2015. A regional overview of total mercury levels in whole blood, cord blood, and breast milk suggests the highest levels in South America, followed by Africa or Asia whereas the population groups from Europe or North America displayed the lowest levels of total mercury in the selected biological matrices. We observed conclusive consistent associations of mercury exposure with selected health conditions, especially neurodevelopment and neurotoxicity in children and adults. For several other health conditions, reported findings in the collected studies do not support conclusive associations. We also found that several studies demonstrated significant associations between mercury exposure below the USEPA reference level and various health conditions. Conclusions This study provides a worldwide and regional overview of trends in total mercury levels in human blood and breast milk and associated health risks prior to entry-into-force of the Minamata Convention and calls for further epidemiological investigations from across the globe to fully understand the health implications of mercury exposure.
en_US
dc.format
application/pdf
en_US
dc.language.iso
en
en_US
dc.publisher
Elsevier
en_US
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subject
Mercury exposure
en_US
dc.subject
Mercury blood levels
en_US
dc.subject
Mercury breast milk levels
en_US
dc.subject
Worldwide trends
en_US
dc.subject
Human health
en_US
dc.title
An overview of worldwide and regional time trends in total mercury levels in human blood and breast milk from 1966 to 2015 and their associations with health effects
en_US
dc.type
Review Article
dc.rights.license
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
dc.date.published
2019-02-06
ethz.journal.title
Environment international
ethz.journal.volume
125
en_US
ethz.journal.abbreviated
Environ. int.
ethz.pages.start
300
en_US
ethz.pages.end
319
en_US
ethz.version.deposit
publishedVersion
en_US
ethz.identifier.wos
ethz.identifier.scopus
ethz.publication.place
Amsterdam
en_US
ethz.publication.status
published
en_US
ethz.date.deposited
2019-02-10T11:23:06Z
ethz.source
SCOPUS
ethz.eth
yes
en_US
ethz.availability
Open access
en_US
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2019-02-27T17:12:10Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2019-02-27T17:12:10Z
ethz.rosetta.exportRequired
true
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
ethz.COinS
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