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dc.contributor.author
Brönnimann, Stefan
dc.contributor.author
Compo, Gilbert P.
dc.contributor.author
Spadin, R.
dc.contributor.author
Allan, Rob
dc.contributor.author
Adam, Wolfgang
dc.date.accessioned
2019-06-24T15:50:12Z
dc.date.available
2017-06-09T10:51:03Z
dc.date.available
2019-06-24T15:50:12Z
dc.date.issued
2011
dc.identifier.issn
1814-9324
dc.identifier.issn
1814-9332
dc.identifier.other
10.5194/cp-7-265-2011
en_US
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/34285
dc.identifier.doi
10.3929/ethz-b-000034285
dc.description.abstract
Extension of 3-D atmospheric data products back into the past is desirable for a wide range of applications. Historical upper-air data are important in this endeavour, particularly in the maritime regions of the tropics and the southern hemisphere, where observations are extremely sparse. Here we present newly digitized and re-evaluated early ship-based upper-air data from two cruises: (1) kite and registering balloon profiles from onboard the ship SMS Planet on a cruise from Europe around South Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific in 1906/1907, and (2) ship-based radiosonde data from onboard the MS Schwabenland on a cruise from Europe across the Atlantic to Antarctica and back in 1938/1939. We describe the data and provide estimations of the errors. We compare the data with a recent reanalysis (the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project, 20CR, Compo et al., 2011) that provides global 3-D data back to the 19th century based on an assimilation of surface pressure data only (plus monthly mean sea-surface temperatures). In cruise (1), the agreement is generally good, but large temperature differences appear during a period with a strong inversion. In cruise (2), after a subset of the data are corrected, close agreement between observations and 20CR is found for geopotential height (GPH) and temperature notwithstanding a likely cold bias of 20CR at the tropopause level. Results are considerably worse for relative humidity, which was reportedly inaccurately measured. Note that comparing 20CR, which has limited skill in the tropical regions, with measurements from ships in remote regions made under sometimes difficult conditions can be considered a worst case assessment. In view of that fact, the anomaly correlations for temperature of 0.3–0.6 in the lower troposphere in cruise (1) and of 0.5–0.7 for tropospheric temperature and GPH in cruise (2) are considered as promising results. Moreover, they are consistent with the error estimations. The results suggest room for further improvement of data products in remote regions.
en_US
dc.format
application/pdf
en_US
dc.language.iso
en
en_US
dc.publisher
Copernicus
en_US
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.title
Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis
en_US
dc.type
Journal Article
dc.rights.license
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
dc.date.published
2011-03-14
ethz.journal.title
Climate of the Past
ethz.journal.volume
7
en_US
ethz.journal.issue
1
en_US
ethz.journal.abbreviated
Clim. past
ethz.pages.start
265
en_US
ethz.pages.end
276
en_US
ethz.version.deposit
publishedVersion
en_US
ethz.identifier.wos
ethz.identifier.nebis
005583758
ethz.publication.place
Göttingen
en_US
ethz.publication.status
published
en_US
ethz.date.deposited
2017-06-09T10:51:24Z
ethz.source
ECIT
ethz.identifier.importid
imp59364dfbb774e94236
ethz.ecitpid
pub:55279
ethz.eth
yes
en_US
ethz.availability
Open access
en_US
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2017-07-19T01:44:57Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2019-06-24T15:50:22Z
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
ethz.COinS
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