Exergame-Driven High-Intensity Interval Training in Untrained Community Dwelling Older Adults: A Formative One Group Quasi-Experimental Feasibility Trial
Knols, Ruud H.
Pfister, Pierrette B.
de Bruin, Eling D.
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an exergame-driven high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and its effects on cardiovascular fitness in untrained community dwelling older adults. Methods: Twelve older participants [10 women, age 72.3 (SD: 4.44) years] performed a high-intensity interval exergame intervention three times a week for 4 weeks. Data was acquired during two baseline and one final measurement. Feasibility outcomes included attrition, adherence, acceptability [Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire (TAM)], usability [System Usability Scale (SUS)], and enjoyment of exergaming. Furthermore, participants’ physical activity levels pre and post intervention were compared to physical activity levels for similar types of training. The secondary outcome was exercise capacity [heart rate at rest (HRrest), heart rate variability (HRV), maximum heart rate (HRmax), and maximum workload (W, in watt)] evaluated through maximal exercise testing. Results: Eleven participants completed the study (8% attrition), without any adverse events. Adherence to the HIIT intervention was 91% and participants showed high acceptance of the intervention with TAM scores between 5.8 and 6.7 points. User satisfaction was rated as excellent (SUS total score: 93.5 of 100) and the overall enjoyment of exergaming scored 4.5 of 5 possible points. Total exercise time ranged from 19 to 35 min with a mean of 30.8 (SD: 3.6) min. Actual high-intensity exercise time showed consistency with the target exercise time in 98% percent of trainings. Eighty-six percent of high-intensity intervals met the targeted intensity range (>70–90% of HRmax). Thirty-six percent of the recovery periods were completed with a heart rate above the target range of 50–70% of HRmax. Maximum workload (W) during the incremental exercise test post-training increased significantly compared to the baseline measurements one and two (p = 0.032, effect size r = 0.77 and p = 0.012, r = 0.87). Conclusion: High-intensity interval training through exergaming is feasible, safe, and shows high usability and acceptance in community dwelling older people. Exergame-driven HIIT had a significant effect on maximum power output on an incremental exercise test. A more extensive exergame intervention period, higher work to recovery ratios as well as a higher-intensity activity should be considered in future projects. Show more
Journal / seriesFrontiers in Physiology
Pages / Article No.
Subjectaerobic exercise; exergaming; feasibility; high-intensity interval training; older adults; virtual reality
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