The counterion–retinylidene Schiff base interaction of an invertebrate rhodopsin rearranges upon light activation
Schertler, Gebhard F.X.
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Animals sense light using photosensitive proteins—rhodopsins—containing a chromophore—retinal—that intrinsically absorbs in the ultraviolet. Visible light-sensitivity depends primarily on protonation of the retinylidene Schiff base (SB), which requires a negatively-charged amino acid residue—counterion—for stabilization. Little is known about how the most common counterion among varied rhodopsins, Glu181, functions. Here, we demonstrate that in a spider visual rhodopsin, orthologue of mammal melanopsins relevant to circadian rhythms, the Glu181 counterion functions likely by forming a hydrogen-bonding network, where Ser186 is a key mediator of the Glu181–SB interaction. We also suggest that upon light activation, the Glu181–SB interaction rearranges while Ser186 changes its contribution. This is in contrast to how the counterion of vertebrate visual rhodopsins, Glu113, functions, which forms a salt bridge with the SB. Our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms of visible light-sensitivity relevant to invertebrate vision and vertebrate non-visual photoreception. Show more
Journal / seriesCommunications Biology
Pages / Article No.
PublisherNature Publishing Group
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