Rights / licenseIn Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Permitted
This report describes the sources of anthropogenic heat (AH) in Singapore for the year 2016. The objective of this report is two-fold: first, to deliver a Sankey diagram of the main sources of AH in Singapore; and second, to explain all the definitions, assumptions, methods and outstanding uncertainties. We also provide our definition of AH in the context of Cooling Singapore 1.5. This is important for both Cooling Singapore and its stakeholders, since our results serve as the cornerstone for 1) validating any mathematical or physical approximation of the AH contributions in Singapore, and 2) analyzing the impact of AH on the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect and subsequently on Outdoor Thermal Comfort (OTC). As most of our energy usage spontaneously decays into heat, this report is largely based on the 2018 Singapore Energy Statistics of the Energy Market Authority. However, to get a more comprehensive understanding, an analysis of the country oil balance, supply of natural gas, power stations including cogeneration, and the industrial sector is done. We focus on the domestic use of energy as we are accounting the heat released within Singapore’s land territory. We identified four major sources of AH in Singapore. These are Power Plants (including the grid; together release 3118 ktoe of heat, or 15.3%); and the three end use sectors Industry (11906 ktoe or 58.5%), Buildings (2430 ktoe or 11.9%), and Transport (2328 ktoe or 11.4%). We also estimated the heat released by human metabolism, which contributes a minimal amount (579 ktoe or 2.8%). We also viewed the heat from power plants alternatively as indirect heat, and allocated this based on the demand of the end use sectors. The Sankey diagram of the energy system including the AH sources of Singapore in 2016 is shown in Annex A. The underlying calculations are shown in Annex B. Finally, two simple analyses of the Sankey diagram can be found in Annex C. Show more
Journal / seriesDeliverable Technical Report
Pages / Article No.
PublisherSingapore-ETH Centre (SEC)
Subjectanthropogenic heat; Sankey diagram; Singapore; Urban Heat Island
Organisational unit08058 - Singapore-ETH Centre (SEC) / Singapore-ETH Centre (SEC)
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