Chemical Synthesis of Atomically Tailored SUMO E2 Conjugating Enzymes for the Formation of Covalently Linked SUMO–E2–E3 Ligase Ternary Complexes
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E2 conjugating enzymes are the key catalytic actors in the transfer of ubiquitin, SUMO, and other ubiquitin-like modifiers to their substrate proteins. Their high rates of transfer and promiscuous binding complicate studies of their interactions and binding partners. To access specific, covalently linked conjugates of the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9, we prepared synthetic variants bearing site-specific non-native modifications including the following: (1) replacement of Cys93 to 2,3-diaminopropionic acid to form the amide-linked stable E2–SUMO conjugate, which is known to have high affinity for E3 ligases; (2) a photoreactive group (diazirine) to trap E3 ligases upon UV irradiation; and (3) an N-terminal biotin for purification and detection. To construct these Ubc9 variants in a flexible, convergent manner, we combined the three leading methods: native chemical ligation (NCL), α-ketoacid–hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation, and serine/threonine ligation (STL). Using the synthetic proteins, we demonstrated the selective formation of Ubc9–SUMO conjugates and the trapping of an E3 ligase (RanBP2) to form the stable, covalently linked SUMO1–Ubc9–RanBP2 ternary complex. The powerful combination of ligation methods—which minimizes challenges of functional group manipulations—will enable chemical probes based on E2 conjugating enzymes to trap E3 ligases and facilitate the synthesis of other protein classes. Show more
Journal / seriesJournal of the American Chemical Society
Pages / Article No.
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
Organisational unit03861 - Bode, Jeffrey W. / Bode, Jeffrey W.
169451 - Protein Synthesis with Chemoselective Ligations (SNF)
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