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dc.contributor.author
Hahn, David F.
dc.contributor.supervisor
Hünenberger, Philippe
dc.contributor.supervisor
Riniker, Sereina
dc.contributor.supervisor
Hansen, Niels
dc.date.accessioned
2019-11-13T07:42:49Z
dc.date.available
2019-11-12T20:56:42Z
dc.date.available
2019-11-13T07:42:49Z
dc.date.issued
2019
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/377256
dc.identifier.doi
10.3929/ethz-b-000377256
dc.description.abstract
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer nowadays a valuable tool for studying phenomena in chemistry and biology. The history of models in chemistry, as well as the methodological and theoretical background of MD is presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 deals with the application of explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to resorcin[4]arene cavitands, which can adopt a close/contracted (Vase) and an open/expanded (Kite) conformation. The Vase-Kite equilibria of a quinoxaline- and a dinitrobenzene-based resorcin[4]arene are investigated in three solvent environments (vacuum, chloroform and toluene) and at three temperatures (198.15, 248.15 and 298.15 K). The challenge of sampling the millisecond-timescale Vase-Kite transition is addressed by calculating relative free energies using ball-and-stick local elevation umbrella sampling (B&S-LEUS) to promote interconversion transitions. The calculated Vase-to-Kite free-energy changes ∆G are in qualitative agreement with the experimental magnitudes and trends. Chapters 3-5 present the development of the conveyor belt scheme, a method to calculate free-energy differences. The working principle relies on K coupled replicas of the system that are simulated at different values of a coupling parameter λ. The number K is taken to be even and the replicas are equally spaced on a forward-turn-backward-turn path, akin to a conveyor belt (CB) between the two end-states. As in λ-dynamics (λD), the λ-values associated with the individual systems evolve in time along the simulation. However, they do so in a concerted fashion, determined by the evolution of a single dynamical variable Λ of period 2π controlling the advance of the entire CB. Thus, a change of Λ is always associated with one half of the replicas moving forward and the other half moving backward along λ. As a result, the effective free-energy profile of the replica system along Λ is characterized with decrasing barriers upon increasing K, at least as K −1 in the limit of large K. When a sufficient number of replicas is used, these variations become small, which enables a complete and quasi-homogeneous coverage of the λ-range by the replica system. Chapter 3 introduces this scheme with respect to alchemical free-energy calculations. Therefore it is termed conveyor belt thermodynamic integration. It provides the mathematical/physical formulation of the scheme, along with an initial application of the method to the calculation of the hydration free energy of methanol. In Chapter 4, the conveyor belt thermodynamic integration is applied to a Lys-X-Lys tripeptide, involving a side-chain mutation in the central residue, and guanosine triphosphate, involving a hydrogen-to-bromine mutation. With both systems, sampling issues have been encountered, due to the large orthogonal barriers either along the backbone dihedral angles φ and ψ (tripeptide) or along ribose-base dihedral angle χ (guanosine). This relative merits of different sampling schemes, orthogonal biasing and estimators to improve the convergence are investigated. The thermodynamic integration scheme is shown to suffer from the constraint of simulations at fixed λ. There is no significant improvement upon changing from the Simpson’s quadrature to the MBAR estimator. Both Hamiltonian replica exchange and conveyor belt thermodynamic integration improve the results for the tripeptide. For the guanosine triphosphate, improvement is only achieved upon application of an orthogonal biasing potential, most efficiently in combination with Hamiltonian replica exchange or conveyor belt thermodynamic integration. The conveyor belt scheme is extended to the calculation of conformational free-energy differences in Chapter 5, resulting in a so-called conveyor belt umbrella sampling scheme (CBUS). CBUS is here initally applied to the calculation of 45 standard absolute binding free energies of five alkali cations to three crown ethers in three different solvents. Besides introducing and testing the new scheme, it is compared to other methods. Expectedly, the direct counting approach has convergence issues on the accessible simulation timescale, and the corresponding results are rather unreliable. On the other hand, the results obtained using traditional umbrella sampling and CBUS are very consistent. Additionally, comparison of the results to those of previous alchemical calculations via an alchemical pathway reveals excellent consistency while the trends of available experimental data are qualitatively reproduced. Conclusions and an outlook into future developments are given in Chapter 6.
en_US
dc.format
application/pdf
en_US
dc.language.iso
en
en_US
dc.publisher
ETH Zurich
en_US
dc.rights.uri
http://rightsstatements.org/page/InC-NC/1.0/
dc.title
Development and Application of Free-energy Calculation Methods based on Molecular Dynamics Simulations
en_US
dc.type
Doctoral Thesis
dc.rights.license
In Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Permitted
dc.date.published
2019-11-13
ethz.size
448 p.
en_US
ethz.identifier.diss
25914
en_US
ethz.publication.place
Zurich
en_US
ethz.publication.status
published
en_US
ethz.leitzahl
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02020 - Dep. Chemie und Angewandte Biowiss. / Dep. of Chemistry and Applied Biosc.::02515 - Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie / Laboratory of Physical Chemistry::03449 - Merkt, Frédéric / Merkt, Frédéric::08820 - Hünenberger, Philippe (Tit.-Prof.)
en_US
ethz.leitzahl.certified
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02020 - Dep. Chemie und Angewandte Biowiss. / Dep. of Chemistry and Applied Biosc.::02515 - Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie / Laboratory of Physical Chemistry::03449 - Merkt, Frédéric / Merkt, Frédéric::08820 - Hünenberger, Philippe (Tit.-Prof.)
en_US
ethz.relation.isSupplementedBy
10.3929/ethz-b-000376729
ethz.date.deposited
2019-11-12T20:56:53Z
ethz.source
FORM
ethz.eth
yes
en_US
ethz.availability
Open access
en_US
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2019-11-13T07:43:37Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2020-02-15T22:31:19Z
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
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