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dc.contributor.author
Benz, Arnold O.
dc.date.accessioned
2019-11-13T06:49:15Z
dc.date.available
2019-11-13T06:49:15Z
dc.date.issued
2017-12
dc.identifier.issn
1614-4961
dc.identifier.other
10.1007/s41116-016-0004-3
en_US
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/377258
dc.identifier.doi
10.3929/ethz-b-000218779
dc.description.abstract
Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays beyond 1 GeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, SOHO, and more recently Hinode and SDO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s) of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting magnetic reconnection as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s ionosphere. Flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, but every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.
en_US
dc.language.iso
en
en_US
dc.publisher
Springer International Publishing
en_US
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subject
Reconnection
en_US
dc.subject
X-ray emission
en_US
dc.subject
Flare radio emission
en_US
dc.subject
Particle acceleration
en_US
dc.subject
Magnetic energy release
en_US
dc.title
Flare Observations
en_US
dc.type
Review Article
dc.rights.license
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
dc.date.published
2016-12-09
ethz.journal.title
Living Reviews in Solar Physics
ethz.journal.volume
14
en_US
ethz.journal.issue
1
en_US
ethz.journal.abbreviated
Living rev. sol. phys.
ethz.pages.start
2
en_US
ethz.size
59 p.
en_US
ethz.version.deposit
publishedVersion
en_US
ethz.identifier.wos
ethz.identifier.scopus
ethz.identifier.nebis
005396920
ethz.publication.place
Heidelberg
en_US
ethz.publication.status
published
en_US
ethz.leitzahl
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02010 - Dep. Physik / Dep. of Physics::02532 - Institut für Teilchen- und Astrophysik / Inst. Particle Physics and Astrophysics::09680 - Quanz, Sascha Patrick / Quanz, Sascha Patrick::08824 - Schmid, Hans Martin (Tit.-Prof.)
en_US
ethz.leitzahl.certified
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02010 - Dep. Physik / Dep. of Physics::02532 - Institut für Teilchen- und Astrophysik / Inst. Particle Physics and Astrophysics::09680 - Quanz, Sascha Patrick / Quanz, Sascha Patrick::08824 - Schmid, Hans Martin (Tit.-Prof.)
en_US
ethz.relation.isNewVersionOf
https://doi.org/10.12942/lrsp-2008-1
ethz.date.deposited
2017-06-12T20:22:48Z
ethz.source
FORM
ethz.source
ECIT
ethz.identifier.importid
imp5936555773fa417874
ethz.ecitpid
pub:192566
ethz.eth
yes
en_US
ethz.availability
Open access
en_US
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2019-11-13T06:49:45Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2020-02-15T22:31:15Z
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
dc.identifier.olduri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/218779
dc.identifier.olduri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/129584
ethz.COinS
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