Recognition of synthetic polyanionic ligands underlies “spontaneous” reactivity of Vγ1γδTCRs
- Journal Article
Although γδTCRs were discovered more than 30 yr ago, principles of antigen recognition by these receptors remain unclear and the nature of these antigens is largely elusive. Numerous studies reported that T cell hybridomas expressing several Vγ1‐containing TCRs, including the Vγ1Vδ6 TCR of γδNKT cells, spontaneously secrete cytokines. This property was interpreted as recognition of a self‐ligand expressed on the hybridoma cells themselves. Here, we revisited this finding using a recently developed reporter system and live single cell imaging. We confirmed strong spontaneous signaling by Vγ1Vδ6 and related TCRs, but not by TCRs from several other γδ or innate‐like αβ T cells, and demonstrated that both γ and δ chains contributed to this reactivity. Unexpectedly, live single cell imaging showed that activation of this signaling did not require any interaction between cells. Further investigation revealed that the signaling is instead activated by interaction with negatively charged surfaces abundantly present under regular cell culture conditions and was abrogated when noncharged cell culture vessels were used. This mode of TCR signaling activation was not restricted to the reporter cell lines, as interaction with negatively charged surfaces also triggered TCR signaling in ex vivo Vγ1 γδ T cells. Taken together, these results explain long‐standing observations on the spontaneous reactivity of Vγ1Vδ6 TCR and demonstrate an unexpected antigen presentation‐independent mode of TCR activation by a spectrum of chemically unrelated polyanionic ligands. Show more
Journal / seriesJournal of Leukocyte Biology
Pages / Article No.
Subjectpolyreactivity; TCR signaling; gamma delta T cells; gamma delta TCR ligands
MoreShow all metadata