Eggshell: Ultra-Thin Three-Dimensional Printed Formwork for Concrete Structures
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Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
vConcrete is a material favored by architects and builders alike due to its high structural strength and its ability to take almost any form. However, to shape concrete structures, heavy-duty formwork is usually necessary to support the fresh concrete while curing. To expand geometrical freedom, three-dimensional (3D) printed concrete formwork has emerged as a ﬁeld of research. This article presents one possible application, a novel fabrication process that combines large-scale robotic fused deposition modeling 3D printing with simultaneous casting of a fast-hardening, set-on-demand concrete. This fabrication process, known as ‘‘Eggshell,’’ enables the production of nonstandard concrete structures in a material-efﬁcient process. By casting a fast-hardening concrete in a continuous process, lateral pressure exerted by the fresh concrete is kept to a minimum. In this way, a 1.5-mm-thin thermoplastic shell can be used as a formwork, without any additional support. Geometries of different scales are tested in this article to evaluate the feasibility of the Eggshell fabrication process in an architectural context. An array of printing materials are also tested, and several different reinforcement concepts are analyzed. The ﬁndings are used to produce a full-scale architectural demonstrator project. This article shows that a wide range of concrete geometries can be produced in a material-efﬁcient fabrication process, paving the way toward mass customization and structural optimization within concrete architecture. Show more
Journal / series3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
Pages / Article No.
PublisherMary Ann Liebert Inc
Subject3D printing; formwork; robotic fabrication; set-on-demand concrete; digital concrete; architecture
Organisational unit03708 - Gramazio, Fabio / Gramazio, Fabio
03709 - Kohler, Matthias / Kohler, Matthias
03891 - Flatt, Robert J. / Flatt, Robert J.
02284 - NFS Digitale Fabrikation / NCCR Digital Fabrication
09469 - Kaufmann, Walter / Kaufmann, Walter
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