The impact of limb loading and the measurement modality (2D versus 3D) on the measurement of the limb loading dependent lower extremity parameters
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Background Deformity assessment and preoperative planning of realignment surgery are conventionally based on weight-bearing (WB) radiographs. However, newer technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) preoperative planning and surgical navigation with patient-specific instruments (PSI) rely on non-weight bearing (NWB) computed tomography (CT) data. Additionally, differences between conventional two-dimensional (2D) and 3D measurements are known. The goal of the present study was to systematically analyse the influence of WB and the measurement modality (2D versus 3D) on common WB-dependent measurements used for deformity assessment. Methods 85 lower limbs could be included. Two readers measured the hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) and the joint line convergence angle (JLCA) in 2D WB and 2D NWB radiographs, as well as in CT-reconstructed 3D models using an already established 3D measurement method for HKA, and a newly developed 3D measurement method for JLCA, respectively. Interrater and intermodality reliability was assessed. Results Significant differences between WB and NWB measurements were found for HKA (p < 0.001) and JLCA (p < 0.001). No significant difference could be observed between 2D HKA NWB and 3D HKA (p = 0.09). The difference between 2D JLCA NWB and 3D JLCA was significant (p < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the interrater agreement was almost perfect for all HKA and 3D JLCA measurements and substantial for 2D JLCA WB and 2D JLCA NWB. ICC for the intermodality agreement was almost perfect between 2D HKA WB and 2D HKA NWB as well as between 2D HKA NWB and 3D HKA, whereas it was moderate between 2D JLCA WB and 2D JLCA NWB and between 2D JLCA NWB and 3D JLCA. Conclusion Limb loading results in significant differences for both HKA and JLCA measurements. Furthermore, 2D projections were found to be insufficient to represent 3D joint anatomy in complex cases. With an increasing number of surgical approaches based on NWB CT-reconstructed models, research should focus on the development of 3D planning methods that consider the effects of WB on leg alignment. Show more
Journal / seriesBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Pages / Article No.
SubjectThree-dimensional planning; Navigation; Corrective osteotomy; Osteotomy; Computer-assisted surgery; Leg deformity
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