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Directing Stem Cell Commitment by Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Incorporated in PLGA: Relevance of the Free Calcium Ion Concentration
- Journal Article
The microenvironment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is responsible for the modulation in MSC commitment. Nanocomposites with an inorganic and an organic component have been investigated, and osteogenesis of MSCs has been attributed to inorganic phases such as calcium phosphate under several conditions. Here, electrospun meshes and two-dimensional films of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or nanocomposites of PLGA and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/aCaP) seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were analyzed for the expression of selected marker genes. In a two-week in vitro experiment, osteogenic commitment was not found to be favored on PLGA/aCaP compared to pure PLGA. Analysis of the medium revealed a significant reduction of the Ca2+ concentration when incubated with PLGA/aCaP, caused by chemical precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on aCaP seeds of PLGA/aCaP. Upon offering a constant Ca2+ concentration, however, the previously observed anti-osteogenic effect was reversed: alkaline phosphatase, an early osteogenic marker gene, was upregulated on PLGA/aCaP compared to pristine PLGA. Hence, in addition to the cell-material interaction, the material-medium interaction was also important for the stem cell commitment here, affecting the cell-medium interaction. Complex in vitro models should therefore consider all factors, as coupled impacts might emerge. Mehr anzeigen
Zeitschrift / SerieInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Themaadipose-derived stem cells; PLGA; amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles; calcium ions; gene expression