Accuracy and Precision Assessment of AoA-Based Indoor Positioning Systems Using Infrastructure Lighting and a Position-Sensitive Detector
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Unlike GNSS-based outdoor positioning, there is no technological alternative for Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) that generally stands out from the others. In indoor contexts, the measurement technologies and localization strategies to be used depend strongly on the application requirements and are complementary to each other. In this work, we present an optical IPS based on a Position-Sensitive Detector (PSD) and exploiting illumination infrastructure to determine the target position by Angle of Arrival (AoA) measurements. We combine the proposed IPS with different positioning strategies depending on the number of visible emitters (one, two, or more) and available prior or additional information about the scenario and target. The accuracy and precision of the proposal is assessed experimentally for the different strategies in a 2.47 m high space covering approximately 2.2 m2, using high-end geodetic equipment to establish the reference ground truth. When the orientation of the target is known from external measurements, an average positioning error of 8.2 mm is obtained using the signal received from only one emitter. Using simultaneous observations from two emitters, an average positioning error of 9.4 mm is obtained without external information when the target movement is restricted to a plane. Conversely, if four signals are available, an average positioning error of 4.9 cm is demonstrated, yielding the complete 3D pose of the target free of any prior assumption or additional measurements. In all cases, a precision (2σ) better than 5.9 mm is achieved across the complete test space for an integration time of 10 ms. The proposed system represents a prospectively useful alternative for indoor positioning applications requiring fast and reliable cm-level accuracy with moderate cost when smart illumination infrastructure is available in the environment. Show more
Journal / seriesSensors
Pages / Article No.
SubjectIndoor Positioning System (IPS); Visible Light Positioning (VLP); Position Sensitive Detector (PSD); Angle of Arrival (AoA); accuracy; precision
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