- Review Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most frequent disorders within child and adolescent psychiatry, with a prevalence of over 5%. Nosological systems, such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, editions 10 and 11 (ICD-10/11) continue to define ADHD according to behavioral criteria, based on observation and on informant reports. Despite an overwhelming body of research on ADHD over the last 10 to 20 years, valid neurobiological markers or other objective criteria that may lead to unequivocal diagnostic classification are still lacking. On the contrary, the concept of ADHD seems to have become broader and more heterogeneous. Thus, the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are still challenging for clinicians, necessitating increased reliance on their expertise and experience. The first part of this review presents an overview of the current definitions of the disorder (DSM-5, ICD-10/11). Furthermore, it discusses more controversial aspects of the construct of ADHD, including the dimensional versus categorical approach, alternative ADHD constructs, and aspects pertaining to epidemiology and prevalence. The second part focuses on comorbidities, on the difficulty of distinguishing between "primary" and "secondary" ADHD for purposes of differential diagnosis, and on clinical diagnostic procedures. In the third and most prominent part, an overview of current neurobiological concepts of ADHD is given, including neuropsychological and neurophysiological researches and summaries of current neuroimaging and genetic studies. Finally, treatment options are reviewed, including a discussion of multimodal, pharmacological, and nonpharmacological interventions and their evidence base. Show more
Journal / seriesNeuropediatrics
Pages / Article No.
PublisherGeorg Thieme Verlag
SubjectADHD; etiology; treatment
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