- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
The Erdős-Rényi (ER) random graph G(n, p) analytically characterizes the behaviors in complex networks. However, attempts to fit real-world observations need more sophisticated structures (e.g., multilayer networks), rules (e.g., Achlioptas processes), and projections onto geometric, social, or geographic spaces. The p-adic number system offers a natural representation of hierarchical organization of complex networks. The p-adic random graph interprets n as the cardinality of a set of p-adic numbers. Constructing a vast space of hierarchical structures is equivalent for combining number sequences. Although the giant component is vital in dynamic evolution of networks, the structure of multiple big components is also essential. Fitting the sizes of the few largest components to empirical data was rarely demonstrated. The p-adic ultrametric enables the ER model to simulate multiple big components from the observations of genetic interaction networks, social networks, and epidemics. Community structures lead to multimodal distributions of the big component sizes in networks, which have important implications in intervention of spreading processes. Show more
Journal / seriesScientific Reports
Pages / Article No.
PublisherNature Publishing Group
SubjectMathematics and computing; Physics
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