Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of payments for ecosystem services – A Chinese garlic farm case
- Journal Article
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) is one effective approach to address serious ecological degradation caused by rapid socio-economic development. However, inappropriate PES policy can cause conflicts among stakeholders. Uncovering the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of PES is crucial to achieve sustainable development. Focusing on donor-side and receiver-side impacts of PES, this study proposes a systematic evaluation framework based on improved emergy analysis and cost-benefit accounting. A garlic farm in Xizhou Town, Yunnan Province, where conflicts between local famers and government arise after enacting the garlic banning policy, is adopted as the study case. After reviewing the local garlic cultivation situation for the period of 2014–2018 and conducting site investigations, three scenarios, including Traditional Planting Mode (TPM), Alternative Planting Mode (APM) and Ecological Planting Mode (EPM), are set up and compared based on local characteristics. Results show that natural conditions, market price and cultivated land area affect emergy inputs and the overall sustainability. Both environmental load and pollution impacts have been decreased, while the overall sustainability has been significantly improved after the implementation of the APM policy. However, from per household income perspective, the results are completely opposite because per household income has been greatly reduced. EPM has remarkably increased economic and ecological benefits from both aspects compared with TPM, though is still inferior to APM in terms of total ecological impact. Several policy suggestions are proposed, including generalizing EPM, increasing compensation amount and capacity-building efforts. © 2020 Elsevier Show more
Journal / seriesJournal of Cleaner Production
Pages / Article No.
SubjectPayments for ecosystem services; Garlic planting; Emergy analysis; Cost-benefit accounting; Impacts evaluation
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