Plasma creatine and incident type 2 diabetes in a general population‐based cohort: The PREVEND study
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with both impaired insulin action at target tissues and impaired insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Plasma creatine has been proposed as a potential marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma creatine and incident type 2 diabetes. Methods We measured fasting plasma creatine concentrations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in participants of the general population‐based PREVEND study. The study outcome was incident type 2 diabetes, defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl); a random sample plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dl); self‐report of a physician diagnosis or the use of glucose‐lowering medications based on a central pharmacy registration. Associations of plasma creatine with type 2 diabetes were quantified using Cox proportional hazards models and were adjusted for potential confounders. Results We included 4735 participants aged 52 ± 11 years, of whom 49% were male. Mean plasma creatine concentrations were 36.7 ± 17.6 µmol/L, with lower concentrations in males than in females (30.4 ± 15.1 µmol/L vs. 42.7 ± 17.7 µmol/L; p for difference <.001). During 7.3 [6.2–7.7] years of follow‐up, 235 (5.4%) participants developed type 2 diabetes. Higher plasma creatine concentrations were associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes (HR per SD change: 1.27 [95% CI: 1.11–1.44]; p < .001), independent of potential confounders. This association was strongly modified by sex (p interaction <.001). Higher plasma creatine was associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes in males (HR: 1.40 [1.17–1.67]; p < .001), but not in females (HR: 1.10 [0.90–1.34]; p = .37). Conclusion Fasting plasma creatine concentrations are lower in males than in females. Higher plasma creatine is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in males. Show more
Journal / seriesClinical Endocrinology
Pages / Article No.
Subjectcreatine; general population; type 2 diabetes
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