Secondary organic aerosol formation from untreated exhaust of gasoline four-stroke motorcycles
- Journal Article
This study investigates the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of carburetor motorcycles exhaust. This type of two-wheeler is a popular means of transport in many Asian cities. A volatility-based numerical model was employed to predict SOA formation from a fleet of motorcycles in Tehran, capital of Iran. The fleet was a combination of four-stroke, gasoline-powered motorcycles with different engine displacement volumes. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors of all motorcycles were previously measured in a chassis dynamometer laboratory according to cold start Euro-3 emissions certification test procedures. Due to incomplete combustion and lack of control on exhaust emissions, unburned fuel was assumed to be a good surrogate for the exhaust of carburetor motorcycles, regarding SOA formation. 150 cc engine and 200 cc engine motorcycles had the highest SOA formation potential, under atmospheric oxidant concentration, while 125 cc engine motorcycles had the highest SOA emission factor (travel- and fuel-based). It was found out that SOA emission factor of 125 cc engine motorcycles could increase up to 20%, three to five years after production. Average SOA formation from carburetor motorcycles in the present study was 4 times higher than Euro-4 passenger cars and 20 times higher than direct emission of particles from Euro-2 motorcycles and on (according to EMEP/EEA levels for PM2.5 emission factors). Carburetor motorcycles with 180 cc engine volume in the present study, had the lowest SOA formation potential. © 2021 Elsevier B.V. Show more
Journal / seriesUrban Climate
Pages / Article No.
SubjectCarburetor motorcycles; Emission factor; SOA; Unburned fuel
Organisational unit03887 - Wang, Jing / Wang, Jing
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