Unraveling the Complexity in the Aging of Nanoenhanced Textiles: A Comprehensive Sequential Study on the Effects of Sunlight and Washing on Silver Nanoparticles
- Journal Article
The scientific understanding of nanoparticle (NP) release and transformations they undergo during the product life cycle is hampered by the narrow scope of many research endeavors in terms of both breadth of variables and completeness of analytical characterization. We conducted a comprehensive suite of studies to reveal overarching mechanisms and parameters for nanosilver transformations either still adhered to the fabric or when released after washing. Laboratory prepared nanoenhanced fabrics were investigated: three Ag variants and one Au used as an unreactive reference to separate mechanical from chemical releases. Sequential combinations of sunlight irradiation and/or washing in seven different detergent formulations was followed by NP characterization divided into two groups: (1) dissolved and particulate matter in the wash solutions and (2) the fraction that remained on the fabric. Analytical techniques included spICP-MS, XANES, TEM, SEM, and total metals analysis of fabric digests and wash water filtrates. Sunlight irradiation stabilizes metallic Ag upon washing. Detergents containing oxidizing agents assisted with Ag particle release but not Au NPs, inferring additional chemical mechanisms. While particle size played some role, the NP capping agent/fabric binder combination was a key factor in release. When particles were released, little alteration in size was observed. The use of well-controlled fabrics, unreactive reference materials, and a life-cycle based experimental regime are paramount to understanding changes in Ag speciation and release upon use of nanoenhanced textiles. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Mehr anzeigen
Zeitschrift / SerieEnvironmental Science & Technology
Seiten / Artikelnummer
VerlagAmerican Chemical Society
Organisationseinheit09717 - Mitrano, Denise M. / Mitrano, Denise M.