Major depressive disorder subtypes and depression symptoms in multiple sclerosis: What is different compared to the general population?
- Journal Article
Objective: To compare and characterize major depressive disorder (MDD) subtypes (i.e., pure atypical, pure melancholic and mixed atypical-melancholic) and depression symptoms in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) with persons without MS (Pw/oMS) fulfilling the DSM-5 criteria for a past 12-month MDD. Methods: MDD in PwMS (n = 92) from the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry was compared with Pw/oMS (n = 277) from a Swiss community-based study. Epidemiological MDD diagnoses were based on the Mini-SPIKE (shortened form of the Structured Psychopathological Interview and Rating of the Social Consequences for Epidemiology). Logistic and multinomial regression analyses (adjusted for sex, age, civil status, depression and severity) were computed for comparisons and characterization. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to empirically identify depression subtypes in PwMS. Results: PwMS had a higher risk for the mixed atypical-melancholic MDD subtype (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.03–4.80) compared to Pw/oMS. MDD in PwMS was specifically characterized by a higher risk of the two somatic atypical depression symptoms ‘weight gain’ (OR = 6.91, 95% CI = 2.20–21.70) and ‘leaden paralysis’ (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.35–6.82) and the symptom ‘irritable/angry’ (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.08–9.39). Conclusions: MDD in PwMS was characterized by a higher risk for specific somatic atypical depression symptoms and the mixed atypical-melancholic MDD subtype. The pure atypical MDD subtype, however, did not differentiate between PwMS and Pw/oMS. Given the high phenomenological overlap with MS symptoms, the mixed atypical-melancholic MDD subtype represents a particular diagnostic challenge. © 2021 The Authors Show more
Journal / seriesJournal of psychosomatic research
Pages / Article No.
SubjectMultiple sclerosis; Depression; Subtypes
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