Detection of optrA in the African continent (Tunisia) within a mosaic Enterococcus faecalis plasmid from urban wastewaters
- Journal Article
Objectives Oxazolidinone resistance is a serious limitation in the treatment of MDR Enterococcus infections. Plasmid-mediated oxazolidinone resistance has been strongly linked to animals where the use of phenicols might co-select resistance to both antibiotic families. Our goal was to assess the diversity of genes conferring phenicol/oxazolidinone resistance among diverse enterococci and to characterize the optrA genetic environment. Methods Chloramphenicol-resistant isolates (>16 mg/L, n = 245) from different sources (hospitals/healthy humans/wastewaters/animals) in Portugal, Angola and Tunisia (1996–2016) were selected. Phenicol (eight cat variants, fexA, fexB) or phenicol + oxazolidinone [cfr, cfr(B), optrA] resistance genes were searched for by PCR. Susceptibility (disc diffusion/microdilution), filter mating, stability of antibiotic resistance (500 bacterial generations), plasmid typing (S1-PFGE/hybridization), MLST and WGS (Illumina-HiSeq) were performed for optrA-positive isolates. Results Resistance to phenicols (n = 181, 74%) and phenicols + oxazolidinones (n = 2, 1%) was associated with the presence of cat(A-8) (40%, predominant in hospitals and swine), cat(A-7) (29%, predominant in poultry and healthy humans), cat(A-9) (2%), fexB (2%) and fexA + optrA (1%). fexA and optrA genes were co-located in a transferable plasmid (pAF379, 72 918 bp) of two ST86 MDR Tunisian Enterococcus faecalis (wastewaters) carrying several putative virulence genes. MICs of chloramphenicol, linezolid and tedizolid were stably maintained at 64, 4 and 1 mg/L, respectively. The chimeric pAF379 comprised relics of genetic elements from different Gram-positive bacteria and origins (human/porcine). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we report the first detection of optrA in an African country (Tunisia) within a transferable mosaic plasmid of different origins. Its identification in isolates from environmental sources is worrisome and alerts for the need of a concerted global surveillance on the occurrence and spread of optrA. Show more
Journal / seriesThe Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Pages / Article No.
PublisherOxford University Press
Organisational unit09497 - Hall, Alex / Hall, Alex
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