Side Effects of Insecticides on Leaf‐Miners and Gall‐Inducers Depend on Species Ecological Traits and Competition with Leaf‐Chewers
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
Internal feeding is considered to shield sessile herbivorous insects from exposure to nonsystemic insecticides aerially sprayed against forest defoliators, although this has not been tested. It is, however, established that leaf damage caused by defoliators affects the survivorship and oviposition behavior of sessile herbivores. Thus feeding ecology and competition may mediate nontarget effects of insecticides on these insects. We tested the ecological sensitivity of 3 guilds of sessile herbivores (upper‐surface leaf‐miners, lower‐surface leaf‐miners, and gall‐inducers) to the lipophilic larvicides diflubenzuron and tebufenozide aerially applied either at operational rates (12 g active ingredient [a.i.]/ha and 69.6 g [a.i.]/ha, respectively) or at maximum legal rates (60 g [a.i.]/ha and 180 g [a.i.]/ha, respectively), in German oak forests. Diflubenzuron affected leaf‐miners at different life stages depending on their position on the leaf but had no effect on gall‐inducers. Tebufenozide showed a similar, but not significant, pattern in leaf‐miners and did not affect gall‐inducers. By reducing the incidence of chewing damage on leaves, both insecticides offset the negative effect of competition on leaf‐miner and gall‐inducers. The net outcome of insecticide treatment was positive for guilds avoiding exposure, but negative for upper‐surface leaf‐miners. Exposure to insecticides in situ can be mediated by subtle differences in species biology and species interactions, with potential implications for organisms usually considered safe in risk assessment studies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;00:1–17. © 2020 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC. Show more
Journal / seriesEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Pages / Article No.
SubjectInsecticide; Sessile herbivores; Population‐level effects; Trait‐based; Ecological sensitivity; Insect competition; Feeding traits
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