- Journal Article
Based on previous observations of the 45° junction manhole for supercritical flow in the main and lateral branches, the hydraulics of the more common 90° junction manhole were explored. Using a selected manhole geometry involving: (1) a short straight piece in the lateral branch to inhibit full development of the bend wave, and (2) the addition of the junction extension as used in previous designs for the bend manhole, the present study gives results that are in basic agreement with those collected in the 45° junction manhole. This surprising result thus allows for a design basis independent of the junction angle. The present paper defines three waves that may occur in a junction manhole, i.e. bend wave, junction wave and the swell at the manhole outlet into the downstream pipe. In addition, the position of the determining junction wave was established. Important for the junction design is the discharge capacity for which supercritical flow can be maintained across the manhole. It was found that the lateral branch flow depth and the pipe diameter have an important effect on this capacity, for both branches or only one of the branches in operation. Show more
Journal / seriesUrban Water
Pages / Article No.
SubjectHydraulics; Junction; Manhole; Sewer; Shock waves; Wastewater
Organisational unit03820 - Boes, Robert / Boes, Robert
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