Ten-Year Simulation of the Effects of Denosumab on Bone Remodeling in Human Biopsies
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disease manifesting in degradation of bone mass and microarchitecture, leading to weakening and increased risk of fracture. Clinical trials are an essential tool for evaluating new treatments and may provide further mechanistic understanding of their effects in vivo. However, the histomorphometry from clinical trials is limited to 2D images and reflects single time points. Biochemical markers of bone turnover give global insight into a drug's action, but not the local dynamics of the bone remodeling process and the cells involved. Additionally, comparative trials necessitate separate treatment groups, meaning only aggregated measures can be compared. In this study, in silico modeling based on histomorphometry and pharmacokinetic data was used to assess the effects of treatment versus control on μCT scans of the same biopsy samples over time, matching the changes in bone volume fraction observed in biopsies from denosumab and placebo groups through year 10 of the FREEDOM Extension trial. In the simulation, treatment decreased osteoclast number, which led to a modest increase in trabecular thickness and osteocyte stress shielding. Long-term bone turnover suppression led to increased RANKL production, followed by a small increase in osteoclast number at the end of the 6-month–dosing interval, especially at the end of the Extension study. Lack of treatment led to a significant loss of bone mass and structure. The study's results show how in silico models can generate predictions of denosumab cellular action over a 10-year period, matching static and dynamic morphometric measures assessed in clinical biopsies. The use of in silico models with clinical trial data can be a method to gain further insight into fundamental bone biology and how treatments can perturb this. With rigorous validation, such models could be used for informing the design of clinical trials, such that the number of participants could be reduced to a minimum to show efficacy. Show more
Journal / seriesJBMR Plus
Pages / Article No.
SubjectBONE HISTOMORPHOMETRY; BONE REMODELING; OSTEOPOROSIS; SIMULATION; THERAPEUTICS
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