- Journal Article
New technologies and processes, such as mainstream anammox, aim to reduce energy requirements of wastewater treatment and improve effluent quality. However, in municipal wastewater (MWW) anammox system are often unstable due to process control disturbance, influent variability, or unwanted nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). This study examines the anammox system by focusing on anammox activity and its robustness in a mainstream environment. An 8 m3 pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) receiving pretreated MWW (with external nitrite addition) was seeded with pre-colonized carriers. Within six months at 12–20 °C an anammox activity of 200 gN·m−3·d−1 was achieved. After the startup an anammox activity of 260 ± 83 gN·m−3·d−1 was maintained over 450 days. The robustness of the anammox activity was analyzed through three disturbance experiments. Anammox biofilm on carriers were exposed to dissolved oxygen (DO = 1.6 mg·L−1, intermittent aeration), organic loading rate (OLR, C/N increased from 2:1 to 5:1) and temperature disturbances (20 °C to 12 °C) in triplicate 12 L bench scale reactors. The anammox activity and microbial community was monitored during these disturbances. The DO and OLR disturbance experiments were replicated at pilot scale to investigate upscaling effects. Bench and pilot scale anammox activity were unaffected by the DO disturbance. Similarly, an increase in OLR did not deteriorate the bench and pilot scale anammox activity, if nitrate was available. When, at bench scale, the reactor temperature was reduced from 20 °C to 12 °C overnight, anammox activity decreased significantly, this was not the case for the slow seasonal temperature changes (12–25 °C) at pilot scale where no strong temperature dependency was detected in winter. Metagenomic analysis revealed a broad range of Brocadiaceae species with no single dominant anammox species. Anammox thrive under mainstream conditions and can withstand typical process disruptions. Show more
Journal / seriesScience of The Total Environment
Pages / Article No.
SubjectMainstream anammox; Anammox activity; Robustness; Disturbance; Pilot
Organisational unit03832 - Morgenroth, Eberhard / Morgenroth, Eberhard
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