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The services essential for urban life include provision of electricity and water, disposal of sewage and solid waste, and management of stormwater. In the past two centuries, the infrastructure providing these services has become increasingly large and centralized, which from a sustainability perspective is problematic. I argue that, to be sustainable, a city must be integrated like a living organism, while having the resilience properties of a mature ecosystem. For the provision of infrastructure, this means that today's massive, highly centralized facilities must give way to more distributed yet interconnected systems. Show more
Journal / seriesEarth Surface Processes and Landforms
Pages / Article No.
Subjectdecentralization; ecosystem services; resilience; sustainability; urban infrastructure
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