Lipids and Phosphorylation Conjointly Modulate Complex Formation of β2-Adrenergic Receptor and β-arrestin2
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of human membrane proteins that bind extracellular ligands at their orthosteric binding pocket to transmit signals to the cell interior. Ligand binding evokes conformational changes in GPCRs that trigger the binding of intracellular interaction partners (G proteins, G protein kinases, and arrestins), which initiate diverse cellular responses. It has become increasingly evident that the preference of a GPCR for a certain intracellular interaction partner is modulated by a diverse range of factors, e.g., ligands or lipids embedding the transmembrane receptor. Here, by means of molecular dynamics simulations of the β2-adrenergic receptor and β-arrestin2, we study how membrane lipids and receptor phosphorylation regulate GPCR-arrestin complex conformation and dynamics. We find that phosphorylation drives the receptor’s intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) away from a native negatively charged membrane surface to interact with arrestin. If the receptor is embedded in a neutral membrane, the phosphorylated ICL3 attaches to the membrane surface, which widely opens the receptor core. This opening, which is similar to the opening in the G protein-bound state, weakens the binding of arrestin. The loss of binding specificity is manifested by shallower arrestin insertion into the receptor core and higher dynamics of the receptor-arrestin complex. Our results show that receptor phosphorylation and the local membrane composition cooperatively fine-tune GPCR-mediated signal transduction. Moreover, the results suggest that deeper understanding of complex GPCR regulation mechanisms is necessary to discover novel pathways of pharmacological intervention. Show more
Journal / seriesFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Pages / Article No.
PublisherFrontiers Media SA
SubjectGPCR; Arrestin; Phosphorylation; Biased signalling; Molecular dynamics simulations; Acidic lipids; Martini2 parametrization; Intracellular loop 3
Organisational unit03870 - Müller, Daniel J. / Müller, Daniel J.
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