- Book Chapter
As the number of cores scale to tens and hundreds, the energy consumption of routers across various types of on-chip networks in chip muiltiprocessors (CMPs) increases significantly. A major source of this energy consumption comes from the input buffers inside Network-on-Chip (NoC) routers, which are traditionally designed to maximize performance. To mitigate this high energy cost, many works propose bufferless router designs that utilize deflection routing to resolve port contention. While this approach is able to maintain high performance relative to its buffered counterparts at low network traffic, the bufferless router design suffers performance degradation under high network load. In order to maintain high performance and energy efficiency under both low and high network loads, this chapter discusses critical drawbacks of traditional bufferless designs and describes recent research works focusing on two major modifications to improve the overall performance of the traditional bufferless network-on-chip design. The first modification is a minimally-buffered design that introduces limited buffering inside critical parts of the on-chip network in order to reduce the number of deflections. The second modification is a hierarchical bufferless interconnect design that aims to further improve performance by limiting the number of hops each packet needs to travel while in the network. In both approaches, we discuss design tradeoffs and provide evaluation results based on common CMP configurations with various network topologies to show the effectiveness of each proposal. Show more
Book titlePower-Efficient Network-on-Chips: Design and Evaluation
Journal / seriesAdvances in Computers
Pages / Article No.
SubjectNetwork-on-chip; Deflection routing; Topology; Bufferless router; Energy efficiency; High-performance computing; Computer architecture; Emerging technologies; Latency; Low-latency computing
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