Hierarchical Structure of Cellulose Nanofibril-Based Foams Explored by Multimodal X-ray Scattering
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Structural characterization techniques are fundamental to correlate the material macro-, nano-, and molecular-scale structures to their macroscopic properties and to engineer hierarchical materials. Here, we combine X-ray transmission with scanning small-and wide-angle X-ray scattering (sSWAXS) to investigate ultraporous and lightweight biopolymer-based foams using cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as building blocks. The power of multimodal sSWAXS for multiscale structural characterization of self-assembled CNFs is demonstrated by spatially resolved maps at the macroscale (foam density and porosity), at the nanoscale (foam structural compactness, CNF orientation in the foam walls, and CNF packing state), and at the molecular scale (cellulose crystallite dimensions). Specifically, we compare the impact of freeze-thawing-drying (FTD) fabrication steps, such as static/stirred freezing and thawing in ethanol/water, on foam structural hierarchy spanning from the molecular to the millimeter scale. As such, we demonstrate the potential of X-ray scattering imaging for hierarchical characterization of biopolymers. Show more
Journal / seriesBiomacromolecules
Pages / Article No.
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
MoreShow all metadata