Iron Bioavailability from Ferrous Ammonium Phosphate, Ferrous Sulfate, and Ferric Pyrophosphate in an Instant Milk Drink—A Stable Isotope Study in Children
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Ferrous ammonium phosphate (FAP) is an iron salt that has been developed for the fortification of food matrices sensitive to color and flavor changes. The objective of the study was to measure iron absorption from FAP in young children and compare it to a previous evaluation of FAP in young women. A double-blind randomized crossover study with two parallel arms was used to evaluate the iron absorption from FAP added to reconstituted milk powder in comparison to that from ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 ) and ferric pyrophosphate (FePP). Iron absorption was measured in 39 children aged 3-to 6-years-old using erythrocyte incorporation of stable Fe isotopes (57Fe,58Fe). The geometric mean iron absorption in iron replete children from FAP, FeSO4 and FePP from milk was 8.3%, 7.6% and 2.1%, respectively. Iron absorption from FAP and FeSO4 fortified milk was not significantly different (p = 0.199); however, it was significantly higher than from FePP fortified milk (p < 0.001). Iron bioavailability from FAP and FePP relative to FeSO4 (relative bioavailability (RBV)) was 110% and 33%, respectively. The RBV of FAP (110%) in iron replete children was higher than previously reported RBV (71%) in mainly iron deficient women. The difference in iron status between the children and women in the respective studies may explain the different RBV values and is discussed. Show more
Journal / seriesNutrients
Pages / Article No.
Subjectferrous sulfate; ferrous ammonium phosphate; ferric pyrophosphate; stable isotope; absorption; milk; children
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