Transition in the Equilibrium Distribution Function of Relativistic Particles
Araújo, Nuno A.M.
Herrmann, Hans J.
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
We analyze a transition from single peaked to bimodal velocity distribution in a relativistic fluid under increasing temperature, in contrast with a non-relativistic gas, where only a monotonic broadening of the bell-shaped distribution is observed. Such transition results from the interplay between the raise in thermal energy and the constraint of maximum velocity imposed by the speed of light. We study the Bose-Einstein, the Fermi-Dirac, and the Maxwell-Jüttner distributions, and show that they all exhibit the same qualitative behavior. We characterize the nature of the transition in the framework of critical phenomena and show that it is either continuous or discontinuous, depending on the group velocity. We analyze the transition in one, two, and three dimensions, with special emphasis on twodimensions, for which a possible experiment in graphene, based on the measurement of the Johnson-Nyquist noise, is proposed. Show more
Journal / seriesScientific Reports
Pages / Article No.
PublisherNature Publishing Group
SubjectStatistical physics, thermodynamics and nonlinear dynamics; Plasma physics; Carbon nanotubes and fullerenes; Astronomy and astrophysics
Organisational unit03733 - Herrmann, Hans Jürgen (emeritus) / Herrmann, Hans Jürgen (emeritus)
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