Design Principles for the Development of Gd(III) Polarizing Agents for Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization
- Journal Article
Nuclear magnetic resonance suffers from an intrinsically low sensitivity, which can be overcome by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Gd(III) complexes are attractive exogenous polarizing agents for magic angle spinning (MAS) DNP due to their high chemical stability in contrast to nitroxide-based radicals. However, even the state-of-the-art Gd(III) complexes have so far provided relatively low DNP signal enhancements of ca. 36 in comparison to standard DNP biradicals, which show enhancements of over 200. Here, we report a series of new Gd(III) complexes for DNP and show that the observed DNP enhancements of the new and existing Gd(III) complexes are inversely proportional to the square of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter D, which is in turn determined by the ligand-type and the local coordination environment. The experimental DNP enhancements at 9.4 T and the ZFS parameters measured with pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy agree with the above model, paving the way for the development of more efficient Gd(III) polarizing agents. Show more
Journal / seriesThe Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Pages / Article No.
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
Organisational unit03810 - Jeschke, Gunnar / Jeschke, Gunnar
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