Assessment of extracranial carotid artery disease using digital twins – A pilot study
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
To improve risk stratification in extracranial internal carotid artery disease (CAD), patients who would benefit maximally from revascularization must be identified. In cardiology, the fractional flow reserve (FFR) has become a reference standard for evaluating the functional severity of coronary artery stenosis, and noninvasive surrogates thereof relying on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been developed. Here, we present a CFD-based workflow using digital twins of patients’ carotid bifurcations derived from computed tomography angiography for the noninvasive functional assessment of CAD. We reconstructed patient-specific digital twins of 37 carotid bifurcations. We implemented a CFD model using common carotid artery peak systolic velocity (PSV) acquired with Doppler ultrasound (DUS) as inlet boundary condition and a two-element Windkessel model as oulet boundary condition. The agreement between CFD and DUS on the PSV in the internal carotid artery (ICA) was then compared. The relative error for the agreement between DUS and CFD was 9% ± 20% and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.88. Furthermore, hyperemic simulations in a physiological range were feasible and unmasked markedly different pressure drops along two ICA stenoses with similar degree of narrowing under comparable ICA blood flow. Hereby, we lay the foundation for prospective studies on noninvasive CFD-based derivation of metrics similar to the FFR for the assessment of CAD. Show more
Journal / seriesNeuroImage: Clinical
Pages / Article No.
SubjectCarotid artery stenosis; Computational fluid dynamics; Digital twins; Extracranial carotid artery disease; Fractional flow reserve
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