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dc.contributor.author
Bechtold, Stefan
dc.contributor.author
Tucker, Catherine
dc.date.accessioned
2017-06-11T04:37:20Z
dc.date.available
2017-06-11T04:37:20Z
dc.date.issued
2014-01
dc.identifier.other
10.2139/ssrn.2266945
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/80180
dc.description.abstract
Internet search engines display advertisements along with search results, providing them with a major source of revenue. The display of ads is triggered by the use of keywords, which are found in the searches performed by search engine users. The fact that advertisers can buy a keyword that contains a trademark they do not own has caused controversy worldwide. To explore the actual effects of trademark and keyword advertising policies, we exploit a natural experiment in Europe. Following a decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union, Google relaxed its AdWords policy in continental Europe in September 2010. After the policy change, Google allowed advertisers to select a third party's trademark as a keyword to trigger the display of ads, with only a limited complaint procedure for trademark owners. We use click-stream data from European Internet users to explore the e ffect this policy change had on browsing behavior. Based on a data set of 5.38 million web site visits before and after the policy change, we find little average change. However, we present evidence that this lack of average effect stems from an aggregation of two opposing effects. While navigational searches are less likely to lead to the trademark owner's website, non-navigational searches are more likely to lead to the trademark owner's website after the policy change. The effect of changing keyword advertising policies varies with the purpose of the consumers using the trademark. The paper points to tradeoffs trademark policy is facing in cases beyond consumer confusion. More generally, the paper proposes a novel way how to analyze the impact of different allocations of property rights in intellectual property law.
dc.language.iso
en
dc.publisher
Social Science Electronic Publishing
dc.subject
Trademark
dc.subject
Keyword advertising
dc.subject
Liability
dc.subject
Google
dc.title
Trademarks, Triggers, and Online Search
dc.type
Working Paper
ethz.journal.title
Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (SSRN)
ethz.size
48 p.
ethz.notes
.
ethz.publication.status
published
ethz.leitzahl
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02045 - Dep. Geistes-, Sozial- u. Staatswiss. / Dep. of Humanities, Social and Pol.Sc.::03795 - Bechtold, Stefan / Bechtold, Stefan
ethz.leitzahl.certified
ETH Zürich::00002 - ETH Zürich::00012 - Lehre und Forschung::00007 - Departemente::02045 - Dep. Geistes-, Sozial- u. Staatswiss. / Dep. of Humanities, Social and Pol.Sc.::03795 - Bechtold, Stefan / Bechtold, Stefan
ethz.date.deposited
2017-06-11T04:38:45Z
ethz.source
ECIT
ethz.identifier.importid
imp59365198ea2e262930
ethz.ecitpid
pub:125646
ethz.eth
yes
ethz.availability
Metadata only
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2017-07-13T13:03:18Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2018-11-02T13:24:09Z
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
ethz.COinS
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