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dc.contributor.author
Huntrieser, Heidi
dc.contributor.author
Schlager, Hans
dc.contributor.author
Lichtenstern, Michael
dc.contributor.author
Roiger, Anke
dc.contributor.author
Stock, P.
dc.contributor.author
Minikin, Andreas
dc.contributor.author
Höller, Hartmut
dc.contributor.author
Schmidt, K.
dc.contributor.author
Betz, Hans-Dieter
dc.contributor.author
Allen, Grant
dc.contributor.author
Viciani, Silvia
dc.contributor.author
Ulanovsky, Alexey
dc.contributor.author
Ravegnani, Fabrizio
dc.contributor.author
Brunner, D.
dc.date.accessioned
2018-10-31T08:33:04Z
dc.date.available
2017-06-11T08:20:06Z
dc.date.available
2018-10-31T08:33:04Z
dc.date.issued
2009
dc.identifier.issn
1680-7375
dc.identifier.issn
1680-7367
dc.identifier.other
10.5194/acp-9-8377-2009
en_US
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11850/83971
dc.identifier.doi
10.3929/ethz-b-000083971
dc.description.abstract
During the SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE field phase in November–December 2005, airborne in situ measurements were performed inside and in the vicinity of thunderstorms over northern Australia with several research aircraft (German Falcon, Russian M55 Geophysica, and British Dornier-228. Here a case study from 19 November is presented in detail on the basis of airborne trace gas measurements (NO, NOy, CO, O3) and stroke measurements from the German LIghtning Location NETwork (LINET), set up in the vicinity of Darwin during the field campaign. The anvil outflow from three different types of thunderstorms was probed by the Falcon aircraft: (1) a continental thunderstorm developing in a tropical airmass near Darwin, (2) a mesoscale convective system (MCS), known as Hector, developing within the tropical maritime continent (Tiwi Islands), and (3) a continental thunderstorm developing in a subtropical airmass ~200 km south of Darwin. For the first time detailed measurements of NO were performed in the Hector outflow. The highest NO mixing ratios were observed in Hector with peaks up to 7 nmol mol−1 in the main anvil outflow at ~11.5–12.5 km altitude. The mean NOx (=NO+NO2) mixing ratios during these penetrations (~100 km width) varied between 2.2 and 2.5 nmol mol−1. The NOx contribution from the boundary layer (BL), transported upward with the convection, to total anvil-NOx was found to be minor (<10%). On the basis of Falcon measurements, the mass flux of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) in the well-developed Hector system was estimated to 0.6–0.7 kg(N) s−1. The highest average stroke rate of the probed thunderstorms was observed in the Hector system with 0.2 strokes s−1 (here only strokes with peak currents ≥10 kA contributing to LNOx were considered). The LNOx mass flux and the stroke rate were combined to estimate the LNOx production rate in the different thunderstorm types. For a better comparison with other studies, LINET strokes were scaled with Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) flashes. The LNOx production rate per LIS flash was estimated to 4.1–4.8 kg(N) for the well-developed Hector system, and to 5.4 and 1.7 kg(N) for the continental thunderstorms developing in subtropical and tropical airmasses, respectively. If we assume, that these different types of thunderstorms are typical thunderstorms globally (LIS flash rate ~44 s−1), the annual global LNOx production rate based on Hector would be ~5.7–6.6 Tg(N) a−1 and based on the continental thunderstorms developing in subtropical and tropical airmasses ~7.6 and ~2.4 Tg(N) a−1, respectively. The latter thunderstorm type produced much less LNOx per flash compared to the subtropical and Hector thunderstorms, which may be caused by the shorter mean flash component length observed in this storm. It is suggested that the vertical wind shear influences the horizontal extension of the charged layers, which seems to play an important role for the flash lengths that may originate. In addition, the horizontal dimension of the anvil outflow and the cell organisation within the thunderstorm system are probably important parameters influencing flash length and hence LNOx production per flash.
en_US
dc.format
application/pdf
en_US
dc.language.iso
en
en_US
dc.publisher
Copernicus
en_US
dc.rights.uri
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.title
NOx production by lightning in Hector: first airborne measurements during SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE
en_US
dc.type
Journal Article
dc.rights.license
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
dc.date.published
2009-11-05
ethz.journal.title
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
ethz.journal.volume
9
en_US
ethz.journal.issue
21
en_US
ethz.journal.abbreviated
Atmos. chem. phys.
ethz.pages.start
8377
en_US
ethz.pages.end
8412
en_US
ethz.version.deposit
publishedVersion
en_US
ethz.identifier.wos
ethz.identifier.nebis
004294181
ethz.publication.place
Göttingen
en_US
ethz.publication.status
published
en_US
ethz.date.deposited
2017-06-11T08:23:35Z
ethz.source
ECIT
ethz.identifier.importid
imp593651e389da057986
ethz.ecitpid
pub:132481
ethz.eth
no
en_US
ethz.availability
Open access
en_US
ethz.rosetta.installDate
2017-07-14T14:19:04Z
ethz.rosetta.lastUpdated
2018-10-31T08:33:32Z
ethz.rosetta.exportRequired
true
ethz.rosetta.versionExported
true
ethz.COinS
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