Recent Submissions 

  1. Correlative Multimodal Imaging for Multiscale Analysis of Complex Biological Systems: Validation Methods and Performance Analysis 

    Correia Marques, Francisco; Wehrle, Esther; Müller, Ralph (2023)
    Reference Series in Biomedical Engineering ~ Bioimaging in Tissue Engineering and Regeneration
    Encyclopedia Entry
  2. A Diversity of Primary Producers in Lakes 

    Pomati, Francesco; Reyes, Marta; Narwani, Anita; et al. (2022)
    Encyclopedia of Inland Waters
    Aim: We present the current state of knowledge with regards to the biodiversity of phytoplankton in lakes. We introduce the main concepts of biodiversity and review the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity at local and regional scales. We also list the main methods to study phytoplankton diversity and offer a set of case studies for further reading. Main concepts: What is biodiversity at the local and regional scale (taxonomic, ...
    Encyclopedia Entry
  3. Screaming Channels 

    Camurati, Giovanni; Francillon, Aurelien (2023)
    Encyclopedia of Cryptography, Security and Privacy
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  4. Energy redistribution in reacting systems 

    Marquardt, Roberto; Quack, Martin (2001)
    Encyclopedia of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry. Volume 1: Fundamentals
    Encyclopedia Entry
  5. Neurophysiological Correlates of Learning to Dance 

    Cross, Emily; Ramsey, Richard (2012)
    Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning
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  6. The use of stable isotopes in soil science: Low atomic number elements 

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Bertrand, Isabelle; Kantnerova, Kristyna; et al. (2023)
    Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences
    In this chapter, we focus on low atomic mass stable isotopes that are widely used in soil and environmental studies. These include carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and sulfur (S). We elucidate how such stable isotopes are used to infer processes, estimate mean residence time of an element in an environmental compartment, and identify sources or relative contribution to a pool. In addition, we describe the basis of the most widespread ...
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  7. Irregular Migration and the City 

    Kaufmann, David; Walz, Mala (2023)
    Oxford Bibliographies Online: Urban Studies
    Irregular migrants tend to live in cities. Cities offer to irregular migrants anonymity, opportunities to find a job and other ways to make a living, different forms of accommodation, and access to potentially existing relational, ethnic, social, or cultural networks. Irregular migration can therefore also be understood as an urban phenomenon. The urban aspects of irregular migration are the focus of this bibliography. We discuss the ...
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  8. Pharmacotherapy for Cocaine Use Disorders 

    Quednow, Boris B.; Engeli, Etna J.E.; Herdener, Marcus (2022)
    Cocaine is one of the most commonly used substances worldwide. It has a strong addictive potential, which often leads to excessive consumption causing pronounced physical and psychological harm to users. There is currently no approved or effective medication to treat cocaine use disorders. However, in the last decades, significant efforts have been made to identify medications that could increase the effectiveness of treatments, with ...
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  9. Glycogen and Starch 

    Roach, Peter J.; Zeeman, Samuel C. (2016)
    Encyclopedia of Cell Biology Second Edition
    Glycogen and starch are the two major storage forms of glucose in nature. Both are large glucose polymers formed by α-1, 4-glycosidic linkages with branch points introduced by α-1, 6-glycosidic linkages. Both are synthesized when conditions are nutritionally or energetically favorable for later use. The structures of glycogen and starch differ greatly. Glycogen has uniform branching, a minimal number of enzymes mediating its metabolism, ...
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  10. Eukaryotic Ribosome Assembly, Quality Control and Export 

    Panse, Vikram G.; Weirich, Christine S.; Oborská-Oplová, Michaela (2023)
    Encyclopedia of Cell Biology Second Edition
    Eukaryotic ribosome assembly spans three cellular compartments and requires the concerted action of three RNA polymerases, the splicing and nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. This process also requires >200 transiently interacting factors including a range of energy-consuming enzymes and RNA-binding scaffolds, that perform both assembly and proofreading functions. Although the detailed mechanisms of ribosome formation have not yet ...
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  11. Cilia and Flagella 

    Pedersen, Lotte B.; Jurisch-Yaksi, Nathalie; Schmid, Fabian; et al. (2023)
    Encyclopedia of Cell Biology Second Edition
    Cilia and flagella are microtubule-based, rod-shaped organelles present on the surface of a variety of eukaryotic cells. They function in cell locomotion, flow of extracellular fluid across cell surfaces as well as in detection, transmission and integration of signals from the cellular surroundings. In vertebrates, cilia are critical for regulating developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Consequently, genetic defects that impair ...
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  12. OMICS – Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics in Systems Biology Research 

    Blattmann, Peter; Aebersold, Rudolf (2023)
    Encyclopedia of Cell Biology Second Edition
    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has already contributed greatly to systems biology studies and its role in systems biology research is likely to grow in the next few years. Its unique capability of quantifying proteins and protein modifications at large scale and throughput make it a prime technology in systems biology studies, specifically those focused on complex biological processes and diseases. In this article, we first introduce ...
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  13. Single-Cell Interrogation of the Immune System Using Microtools 

    Albayrak, Cem; Tay, Savaş (2016)
    Encyclopedia of Cell Biology Second Edition
    Immune cells mount their biological response and protect the host from pathogens by secreting bioactive molecules, communicating with other cells directly or via secreted agents, and migrating under flow or chemotactic gradients. This article summarizes recent advances in microfluidic technology and highlights examples of microtools used in studying the mentioned aspects of the immune response (i.e., secretion, migration, and intercellular ...
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  14. Food insecurity and poverty 

    Harttgen, Kenneth; Seiler, Johannes (2023)
    Elgar Handbooks in Development ~ Research Handbook on Measuring Poverty and Deprivation
    Despite rapid economic growth and poverty reduction within the last three decades, food insecurity still afflicts about two billion people worldwide. As a result, food insecurity is one of the top priorities for governments in many countries, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries highlighted by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Poverty is a direct cause of food insecurity. At the same time, food insecurity leads ...
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  15. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists and sleep 

    Möhler, Hanns (2013)
    Encyclopedia of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms (Second Edition)
    The pharmacotherapy of insomnias is largely based on drugs acting at benzodiazepine sites of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors. They enhance the inhibitory effects of GABA. Traditional benzodiazepine hypnotics do not differentiate among GABAA receptor subtypes. The hypnotics zolpidem and zaleplon act on the α1GABAA receptor subtypes, which mediate sedation. The hypnotic eszopiclone targets preferentially the α3GABAA receptor subtype, ...
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  16. Surface organometallic and coordination chemistry approach to formation of single site heterogeneous catalysts 

    Copéret, Christophe; Korzynski, Maciej Damian (2023)
    Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry III (Third Edition). Volume 6: Heterogeneous Inorganic Catalysis
    Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC), an approach to generate molecularly defined surface sites on solids, has opened possibilities to understand heterogeneous catalysis with atomic-level precision. Treating the surface of traditional supports as defined (albeit complex) ligands and applying the rules of molecular inorganic chemistry allowed for formation of countless examples of well-defined surface moieties, some of which were shown ...
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  17. Iodine: Deficiency disorders and prevention programs 

    Zimmermann, Michael B. (2023)
    Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Fourth Edtion). Volume 1: The Foundations of Human Nutrition
    Iodine is an essential component of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones, and therefore iodine, are essential for mammalian life. Optimal dietary iodine intakes for healthy adults are 150–250μgday−1. Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed as iodine deficiency disorders. Assessment methods of iodine status include urinary iodine concentration, ...
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  18. Terbium radionuclides for theranostics 

    Müller, Cristina; Schibli, Roger; Bernhardt, Peter; et al. (2022)
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. Volume 4: Nuclear Medicine Therapy
    The concept of radiotheragnostics dates several decades, with the application of radioiodine for imaging and therapy of thyroid cancer. Later, tumor-specific targeting agents for coordination of radiometals have been introduced in clinical routine to enable nuclear imaging and therapeutic interventions, respectively. Among a variety of radionuclides currently used or proposed for radiotheragnostics, terbium has received particular attention, ...
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  19. PET imaging in cardiovascular inflammation: Cardiac sarcoidosis 

    Popescu C.E.; Caobelli, Federico; Popescu, Cristina E. (2022)
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. Volume 3: Positron Emission Tomography Studies
    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of which the etiology remains unknown. Cardiac death is the leading cause of mortality in patients with sarcoidosis, yet cardiac involvement often remains undetected. A proper clinical management should be started as early as possible in order to avoid complications such as conduction disturbance, systolic dysfunction, and even sudden cardiac death. Cardiac fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission ...
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  20. Shallow Systems – Geothermal Heat Pumps 

    Rybach, Ladislaus (2022)
    The Article describes the characteristics, design, and use of Geothermal heat pump systems, and consists of 12 Chapters.
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