Recent Submissions 

  1. The carbon dioxide emission as indicator of the geothermal heat flow: Review of local and regional applications with a special focus on italy 

    Chiodini G.; Cardellini C.; Bini G.; et al. (2021)
    We review the methods based on the measurement of CO2 emissions for the computation of geothermal heat flow, both at a local (hydrothermal sites, a few km2) and regional scale (hundreds km2). At the local scale, we present and discuss the cases of the Latera caldera and Torre Alfina (Italy) geothermal systems. At Torre Alfina and Latera, the convection process sustains a CO2 emission of ~1 kg s–1 and ~4 kg s–1, and heat flows of 46 MW and ...
    Review Article
  2. Organic synthesis in Aqueous Multiphase Systems — Challenges and opportunities ahead of us 

    Hauk, Pascal; Wencel-Delord, Joanna; Ackermann, Lutz; et al. (2021)
    Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science
    Chemistry in water enabled by surfactants offers remarkable benefits from compliance and sustainability standpoints. It has consequently significantly grown and gained the major interest of synthetic organic chemists in the last decade. Rapid growth and adoption have mostly occurred through an increasing number of examples of successful, selective syntheses of desired products, although numerous and significant gaps remain in understanding ...
    Review Article
  3. Effect of the hydrophobic phase on interfacial phenomena of surfactants, proteins, and particles at fluid interfaces 

    Bergfreund, Jotam; Bertsch, Pascal; Fischer, Peter (2021)
    Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science
    The hydrophobic or oil phase in fluid mixtures is often given little attention in interfacial experiments and emulsion design. This has been the cause for significant inconsistencies in the scientific literature, as experiments were often performed at arbitrary oils, which impeded the reproducibility and comparability as well as hampers the pathway to a generic description. Here, we summarize the effect of the oil phase on the adsorption, ...
    Review Article
  4. Natural convection over vertical and horizontal heated flat surfaces: A review of recent progress focusing on underpinnings and implications for heat transfer and environmental applications 

    Fan, Yifan; Zhao, Yongling; Torres, Juan F.; et al. (2021)
    Physics of Fluids
    Natural convection arising over vertical and horizontal heated flat surfaces is one of the most ubiquitous flows at a range of spatiotemporal scales. Despite significant developments over more than a century contributing to our fundamental understanding of heat transfer in natural convection boundary layers, certain “hidden” characteristics of these flows have received far less attention. Here, we review scattered progress on less visited ...
    Review Article
  5. Multimodal Contrast Agents for Optoacoustic Brain Imaging in Small Animals 

    Shi, Xue-feng; Ji, Bin; Kong, Yanyan; et al. (2021)
    Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging has demonstrated versatile applications in biomedical research, visualizing the disease pathophysiology and monitoring the treatment effect in an animal model, as well as toward applications in the clinical setting. Given the complex disease mechanism, multimodal imaging provides important etiological insights with different molecular, structural, and functional readouts in vivo. Various multimodal ...
    Review Article
  6. On Neurorights 

    Ienca, Marcello (2021)
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
    In recent years, philosophical-legal studies on neuroscience (mainly in the fields of neuroethics and neurolaw) have given increasing prominence to a normative analysis of the ethical-legal challenges in the mind and brain sciences in terms of rights, freedoms, entitlements and associated obligations. This way of analyzing the ethical and legal implications of neuroscience has come to be known as “neurorights.” Neurorights can be defined ...
    Review Article
  7. Urban Heat Island and Its Interaction with Heatwaves: A Review of Studies on Mesoscale 

    Kong, Jing; Zhao, Yongling; Carmeliet, Jan; et al. (2021)
    With rapid urbanization, population growth and anthropogenic activities, an increasing number of major cities across the globe are facing severe urban heat islands (UHI). UHI can cause complex impacts on the urban environment and human health, and it may bring more severe effects under heatwave (HW) conditions. In this paper, a holistic review is conducted to articulate the findings of the synergies between UHI and HW and corresponding ...
    Review Article
  8. Editorial: Linking Stomatal Development and Physiology: From Stomatal Models to Non-model Species and Crops 

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; Chater, Caspar C.C.; Shpak, Elena D.; et al. (2021)
    Frontiers in Plant Science
    Stomata are highly dynamic valves in the epidermis of plants. These microscopic structures regulate the exchange of gases with the atmosphere and are essential for plant survival on land (Raven, 2002). There is an enduring fascination with stomata because of their specialized nature: from their unique development out of undifferentiated epidermal cells; to the environmental and internal signals they respond to; and the impacts their ...
    Review Article
  9. Additive manufacturing in drug delivery: Innovative drug product design and opportunities for industrial application 

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Rahimian, Sima; Guzzi, Elia A.; et al. (2021)
    Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
    Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing is enabling new directions in product design. The adoption of AM in various industrial sectors has led to major transformations. Similarly, AM presents new opportunities in the field of drug delivery, opening new avenues for improved patient care. In this review, we discuss AM as an innovative tool for drug product design. We provide a brief overview of the different AM processes and their ...
    Review Article
  10. Levitodynamics: Levitation and control of microscopic objects in vacuum 

    Gonzalez-Ballestero, Carlos; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Novotny, Lukas; et al. (2021)
    The control of levitated nano- and micro-objects in vacuum—which capitalizes on scientific achievements in the fields of atomic physics, control theory, and optomechanics—is of considerable interest. The ability to couple the motion of levitated systems to internal degrees of freedom, as well as to external forces and systems, provides opportunities for science and technology. Attractive research directions, ranging from fundamental quantum ...
    Review Article
  11. A starting guide to root ecology: strengthening ecological concepts and standardising root classification, sampling, processing and trait measurements 

    Freschet, Grégoire T.; Gessler, Arthur; et al. (2021)
    New Phytologist
    In the context of a recent massive increase in research on plant root functions and their impact on the environment, root ecologists currently face many important challenges to keep on generating cutting-edge, meaningful and integrated knowledge. Consideration of the below-ground components in plant and ecosystem studies has been consistently called for in recent decades, but methodology is disparate and sometimes inappropriate. This ...
    Review Article
  12. Engineering crystal structures with light 

    Disa, Ankit S.; Nova, Tobia F.; Cavalleri, Andrea (2021)
    Nature Physics
    The crystal structure of a solid largely dictates its electronic, optical and mechanical properties. Indeed, much of the exploration of quantum materials in recent years including the discovery of new phases and phenomena in correlated, topological and two-dimensional materials—has been based on the ability to rationally control crystal structures through materials synthesis, strain engineering or heterostructuring of van der Waals bonded ...
    Review Article
  13. Negative and Near-Zero Thermal Expansion in A2M3O12 and Related Ceramic Families: A Review 

    Marinkovic, Bojan A.; Pontón, Patricia I.; Romao, Carl Peter; et al. (2021)
    Frontiers in Materials
    This review presents the history of materials in the A2M3O12 and related ceramic families, including their unusual thermal expansion and the present understanding of its mechanism, and related factors such as hydroscopicity and the monoclinic to orthorhombic phase transition. Other properties, including thermomechanical, thermal and ionic conduction and optical properties, are presented in terms of current knowledge, challenges and ...
    Review Article
  14. Dissociating breathlessness symptoms from mood in asthma 

    Harrison, Olivia K.; Marlow, Lucy; Finnegan, Sarah L.; et al. (2021)
    Biological Psychology
    It is poorly understood why asthma symptoms are often discordant with objective medical tests. Differences in interoception (perception of internal bodily processes) may help explain symptom discordance, which may be further influenced by mood and attention. We explored inter-relationships between interoception, mood and attention in 63 individuals with asthma and 30 controls. Questionnaires, a breathing-related interoception task, two ...
    Review Article
  15. A fatal affair: Circulating tumor cell relationships that shape metastasis 

    Ozimski, Lauren L.; Gremmelspacher, David; Aceto, Nicola (2021)
    Circulating tumor cells are metastatic precursors in several cancer types. Their biology and clinical utility are subject to numerous investigations, yet one aspect that is often neglected is their entanglement with the tumor microenvironment, namely the cross talk with stromal and immune cells and their relationships with other tumor-derived components such as circulating tumor DNA and extracellular vesicles in circulation. We will focus ...
    Review Article
  16. Nanoscale magnetic field imaging for 2D materials 

    Marchiori, Estefani; Ceccarelli, Lorenzo; Rossi, Nicola; et al. (2021)
    Nature Reviews Physics
    Nanoscale magnetic imaging can provide microscopic information about length scales, inhomogeneity and interactions of materials systems. As such, it is a powerful tool to probe phenomena such as superconductivity, Mott insulating states and magnetically ordered states in 2D materials, which are sensitive to the local environment. This Technical Review provides an analysis of weak magnetic field imaging techniques that are most promising ...
    Review Article
  17. Designing spatial and temporal control of vaccine responses 

    Roth, Gillie A.; Picece, Vittoria C.T.M.; Ou, Ben S.; et al. (2021)
    Nature Reviews Materials
    Vaccines are the key technology to combat existing and emerging infectious diseases. However, increasing the potency, quality and durability of the vaccine response remains a challenge. As our knowledge of the immune system deepens, it becomes clear that vaccine components must be in the right place at the right time to orchestrate a potent and durable response. Material platforms, such as nanoparticles, hydrogels and microneedles, can ...
    Review Article
  18. Pathological at1r-b2r protein aggregation and preeclampsia 

    Quitterer, Ursula; AbdAlla, Said (2021)
    Preeclampsia is one of the most frequent and severe complications of pregnancy. Symptoms of preeclampsia usually occur after 20 weeks of pregnancy and include hypertension and kidney dysfunction with proteinuria. Up to now, delivery of the infant has been the most effective and life-saving treatment to alleviate symptoms of preeclampsia because a causative treatment does not exist, which could prolong a pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. ...
    Review Article
  19. How ceramides orchestrate cardiometabolic health—an ode to physically active living 

    Carrard, Justin; Gallart-Ayala, Hector; Weber, Nadia; et al. (2021)
    Cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) represent a growing socioeconomic burden and concern for healthcare systems worldwide. Improving patients’ metabolic phenotyping in clinical practice will enable clinicians to better tailor prevention and treatment strategy to individual needs. Recently, elevated levels of specific lipid species, known as ceramides, were shown to predict cardiometabolic outcomes beyond traditional biomarkers such as cholesterol. ...
    Review Article
  20. Emerging mammalian gene switches for controlling implantable cell therapies 

    Madderson, Oliver; Teixeira, Ana P.; Fussenegger, Martin (2021)
    Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
    Engineered cell-based therapies have emerged as a new paradigm in modern medicine, with several engineered T cell therapies currently approved to treat blood cancers and many more in clinical development. Tremendous progress in synthetic biology over the past two decades has allowed us to program cells with sophisticated sense-and-response modules that can effectively control therapeutic functions. In this review, we highlight recent ...
    Review Article

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