- Doctoral Thesis
Rights / licenseIn Copyright - Non-Commercial Use Permitted
Event-based sensors, built with biological inspiration, differ greatly from traditional sensor types. A standard vision sensor uses a pixel array to produce a frame containing the light intensity at every pixel whenever the sensor is sampled; a standard audio sensor produces a waveform of sound amplitude over time. Event-based sensors, on the other hand, are typically substantially sparser in their output, producing output events that occur upon informative changes in the scene, usually with low latency and accurate timing, and are data-driven rather than sampled. The outputs produced by these novel sensor types differ radically from traditional sensors. Unfortunately, these differences make it hard to apply standard data analysis techniques to event-based data, despite the advanced state of computational techniques for image understanding and acoustic processing. Machine learning especially has made great strides in recent years towards scene understanding, and particularly in the area of deep learning. The goal of this thesis is to study how to make use of these novel sensors to draw from the state-of-the-art in machine learning while maintaining the advantages of event-based sensors. This thesis takes the view that frame-based, traditional data has limited the scope of discovery for new kinds of machine learning algorithms. While machine learning algorithms have reached great success, their achievements pale in comparison to biological reasoning, and perhaps this arises from the fundamental assumptions about what is processed in addition to how. That is, by relaxing expectations on the kinds of data that will be processed, perhaps even better algorithms can be discovered that not only work with biologically-inspired event-based sensors but also outperform traditional machine learning algorithms. This thesis is studied at multiple levels of abstraction. In Chapter 2, custom hardware platforms are introduced that prototype an existing machine learning algorithm in hardware. That work aims to ensure that the advantages of both state-of-the-art machine learning and the novel sensor types are maintained at the most fundamental hardware level and to understand the limitations of the algorithms better. Indeed, this revealed that the most significant bottleneck when combining both is the accuracy loss compared to traditional machine learning algorithms, and motivates the work in Chapter 3 that dramatically increases the accuracy of event-driven neural networks for fixed, unchanging scenes (e.g., image analysis, perhaps the most well-studied problem in deep learning currently). With that primary limitation addressed, Chapter 4 explores advantages that are unavailable to traditional deep learning but are available to event-driven deep networks. Chapter 5 forms perhaps the key contribution of this thesis by introducing a novel algorithm, Phased LSTM, that natively works with event-driven sensors observing dynamic and changing scenes. Indeed, as hypothesized above, Phased LSTM offers significant advantages over traditional deep neural networks, both for event-driven inputs and for standard frame-based inputs. Chapter 6 investigates the source of these advantages to identify if the model is sufficiently simple and advantageous. Finally, an observation made in the development of Phased LSTM motivates examining a principle of event-based sensing within computation as well, explored in Chapter 7, and demonstrates the significant computational speedups that can result when sensor principles are also applied to computation. Overall, this thesis introduces hardware implementations and algorithms that use inspiration from deep learning and the advantages of event-based sensors to add intelligence to platforms to achieve a new generation of lower-power, faster-response, and more accurate systems Show more
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ContributorsSupervisor: Liu, Shih-Chii
Supervisor: Delbruck, Tobi
Supervisor: Lee, Daniel
Supervisor: Martin, Kevan A.C.
SubjectDeep Neural Networks; Event-driven sensors; Deep neural networks (DNNs); Spiking deep neural networks; Recurrent Neural Networks; Convolutional neural networks
Organisational unit03454 - Martin, Kevan A.C.
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