A well-balanced scheme for the simulation tool-kit A-MaZe: Implementation, tests, and first applications to stellar structure
Popov, Mikhail V.
- Journal Article
Rights / licenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Characterizing stellar convection in multiple dimensions is a topic at the forefront of stellar astrophysics. Numerical simulations are an essential tool for this task. We present an extension of the existing numerical tool-kit A-MaZe that enables such simulations of stratified flows in a gravitational field. The finite-volume based, cell-centered, and time-explicit hydrodynamics solver of A-MaZe was extended such that the scheme is now well-balanced in both momentum and energy. The algorithm maintains an initially static balance between gravity and pressure to machine precision. Quasi-stationary convection in slab-geometry preserves gas energy (internal plus kinetic) on average, despite strong local up- and down-drafts. By contrast, a more standard numerical scheme is demonstrated to result in substantial gains of energy within a short time on purely numerical grounds. The test is further used to point out the role of dimensionality, viscosity, and Rayleigh number for compressible convection. Applications to a young sun in 2D and 3D, covering a part of the inner radiative zone, as well as the outer convective zone, demonstrate that the scheme meets its initial design goal. Comparison with results obtained for a physically identical setup with a time-implicit code show qualitative agreement. Show more
Journal / seriesAstronomy and Astrophysics
Pages / Article No.
Subjectmethods: numerical; stars: interiors; hydrodynamics; convection
MoreShow all metadata