- Journal Article
Precise replacement of diseased or dysfunctional organs is the goal of regenerative medicine and has appeared to be a distant goal for a long time. In the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, this goal is now becoming tangible as gene-editing technologies and novel conditioning agents are entering the clinical arena. Targeted immunologic depletion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are at the very root of the hematopoietic system, will enable more selective and potentially more effective hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematological diseases. In contrast to current conditioning regimes based on ionizing radiation and chemotherapy, immunologic conditioning will spare mature hematopoietic cells and cause substantially less inflammation and unspecific collateral damage to other organs. Biological agents that target the stem cell antigen CD117 are the frontrunners for this purpose and have exhibited preclinical activity in depletion of healthy HSCs. The value of anti-CD117 antibodies as conditioning agents is currently being evaluated in early clinical trials. Whereas mild, antibody-based immunologic conditioning concepts might be appropriate for benign hematological disorders in which incomplete replacement of diseased cells is sufficient, higher efficacy will be required for treatment and elimination of hematologic stem cell malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Antibody–drug conjugates, bispecific T-cell engaging and activating antibodies (TEAs), or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells might offer increased efficacy compared with naked antibodies and yet higher tolerability and safety compared with current genotoxic conditioning approaches. Here, we summarize the current state regarding immunologic conditioning concepts for the treatment of HSC disorders and outline potential future developments. © 2021 ISEH – Society for Hematology and Stem Cells Show more
Journal / seriesExperimental Hematology
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